Sonntag, 8. Mai 2016

Greedy, Greedy!! - Take Too Much, Learn Your Lesson

As you might know, there are days one can barely keep back and curb appetite, as one has become so firmly hungry. Go to a restaurant with an all-in buffet, and you will see for yourself, how much you put on your plate if that is the case vs. a normal day.
Similar to that some people want to fill their glass, cup, bowl with too much water, tea or wine etc. There is a physical limit to how much you can put in it, specially if you have to walk with the cup, avoiding to spill. A little more is still possible if you fill it in at the table you are sitting or the cocktail you're served at the bar. However, there is, particularly with wine, also an etiquette to be considered, Also you want to swirl and snif the wine without splashing it all over the place, which can happen easily if the glass is too full. Wine culture is a science and there are so many glass types as there are wines. But as a rule of thumb one can fill it one third, Beer culture has more to do with fill up to the top... 

Back to our Greedy Tea Cups. Take a look at this funny Chinese Celadon Dragon cup. 

This teacup will not allow you to fill it up to the cup edge. As soon as the dragon starts to drink tea, you will be surprised to see all of your tea vanish through his mouth - LOL! That's why they say "Greedy Cup. Take too much, learn your lesson".

Tradition says Pythagoras, during water supply works in Samos, around 530 BC, moderated the workers’ wine drinking by inventing the “fair cup”. When the wine surpasses the line, the cup totally empties, so the greedy one is punished.

Pythagorean cup or Pythagoras cup or Greedy Cup – Tantalus cup is a form of drinking cup which forces its user to imbibe only in moderation. Credited to Pythagoras of Samos, it allows the user to fill the cup with wine up to a certain level. If the user fills the cup only up to that level he may enjoy his drink in peace. If he exhibits gluttony, however, the cup spills its contents out the bottom (the intention being: onto the lap of the immodest drinker).

Form and function: A Pythagorean cup looks like a normal drinking cup, except that the bowl has a central column in it – giving it a shape like a Bundt pan in the center of the cup. The central column of the bowl is positioned directly over the stem of the cup and over the hole at the bottom of the stem. A small, open pipe runs from this hole almost to the top of the central column, where there is an open chamber. The chamber is connected by a second pipe to the bottom of the central column, where a hole in the column exposes the pipe to (the contents of) the bowl of the cup.
When the cup is filled, liquid rises through the second pipe up to the chamber at the top of the central column, following Pascal’s principle of communicating vessels. As long as the level of the liquid does not rise beyond the level of the chamber, the cup functions as normal. If the level rises further however, the liquid spills through the chamber into the first pipe and out the bottom.

Hydrostatic pressure then creates a siphon through the central column causing the entire contents of the cup to be emptied through the hole at the bottom of the stem. What fun! The unlucky drinker has created a siphon in their glass, the same process by which one can use a hose to drain a fuel tank. The weight of the water falling through the lower portion of the tube at the base of the glass reduces the pressure at the upper portion of the tube, allowing water to be “pushed” into the tube by the weight of the water remaining in the glass.

You can buy your own Greek Pythagorean Cup right here:

Pythagorean cup, also known as the Pythagorean Glass, Fair Cup and Pythagoras Cup. The Pythagorean cup is a form of drinking cup, which is a deep sense of control measures of a drink. Creating a bowl ranked among the discoveries of Pythagoras of Samos. The uniqueness of the bowl of Pythagoras in a fairly simple principle that works as a mechanism of the valve, filling the cup up to a certain level, you can drink its contents as a regular cup but that’s as soon as we overfill the liquid over the mark level of the cup all of its contents follows through a hole located at bottom of the bowl..

ACME Klein Bottle does a See Through Version, the "Tantalus Wine Glass"... cool. 

Cup of Tantalus (Wine Glass of Tantalus)  by Acme Klein Bottle

How does a siphon work? — C

siphonsThere's an old expression, "water seeks its level." The physics behind water's tendency to flow until all of it is at the same level is related to potential energy— energy stored in forces such as those of gravity. The higher water is, the more gravitational potential energy it has. Water, like everything else, accelerates in whatever direction reduces its total potential energy as quickly as possible. In the case of water that's not level in an open container, the higher water accelerates toward the lower water so that the higher water reduces its potential energy as quickly as possible. Open water always accelerates so as to level itself.
It's easy to understand how water seeks its level when you pour water from a higher open container to lower one. But when you connect those two containers with a pipe, the level-seeking process becomes much more mysterious. As long as the water goes only downhill through the pipe, the mystery seems minimal, but sometimes the pipe starts upward before it bends downward. This siphon shape is very puzzling. What allows the water to go upward as part of its level-seeking process?
The answer lies in the fact that water has more than one type of potential energy. In addition to gravitational potential energy, water has potential energy associated with its pressure. High-pressure water has more potential energy than low-pressure water, which explains why water tends to accelerate from high pressure toward low pressure—from high potential energy to low potential energy—even in the absence of gravity. Moreover, the pressure of water in a sealed pipe decreases with altitude, so the higher you look in that pipe, the less pressure potential energy you'll find. Because of this pressure effect, the total potential energy (gravitational plus pressure) of water in a closed pipe doesn't change, even as that water rises a short distance upward inside the pipe! Sure, the gravitational potential energy of the water is increasing as the water rises, but its pressure potential energy is decreasing by an equal amount.
In a siphon, where the pipe goes first upward from the higher container and then downward to the lower container, the weight of water in descending portion of the pipe actually decreases the pressure inside the rising portion of the pipe. As a result of this extra pressure drop, water in the high container can reduce its total potential energy by accelerating toward and then through the pipe. Water begins flowing through the pipe, even though it has to go upward for a short time during that passage. Surprisingly enough, its total potential energy is decreasing the whole time, even as it rises, because the pressure potential energy drops quickly enough in the pipe to more than make up for the rise in gravitational potential energy. This continuous drop in total potential energy helps to keep the water flowing smoothly, despite some of the slowing effects of friction in the pipe. As always, water seeks its level and the higher container empties into the lower container.
This siphon effect relies on atmospheric pressure to allow the pressure and pressure potential energy to drop as the water travels upward inside the sealed pipe. But eventually the pressure of the rising water reaches zero and no further reductions in pressure and pressure potential energy are possible. That failure of the siphon effect occurs when the water is about 30 feet (10 meters) above the higher container. You can't use a siphon to lift water higher than 30 feet because above that height, an empty region will develop at the top of the pipe and stop the siphon process.

Answered by Louis A. Bloomfield of the University of Virginia

I found another version of a Chinese cup, unfortunately the photo is very low res., below a (c) pic with two baby dragons and mamasan teapot.

here together with a Yue

Yao, upscale gift antique porcelain pot Shaanxi Parure back faucet features gifts ornaments Cup

there are not so many images around... the Dragons are kinda cute, must buy a few on eBay.

A Pythagorean cup sold in Crete there called "o kounenos tsi dikaiosynis" (the cup of justice)

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