Montag, 29. Juli 2013

Viva Italia!

Ich dachte, diese Karre hätte ich schon mal reingestellt... na ja der Text sagt alles,  aerodynamisch.

der 1947er Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina) haut einen glatt um, wenn man den im Museum mal live sieht.

Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947






Audio Program excerpt 

AUTObodies: speed, sport, transport June 29–September 16, 2002

, June 29–September 16, 2002
Director, Glenn Lowry: The Cisitalia, a revolutionary sports car, had a profound influence on automobile design after World War II. It's by Pininfarina, an exceptionally talented Italian coach builder – the person responsible for designing an auto body, but not necessarily the underlying frame or chassis, nor the engine.
You might start looking at the car from behind. That oval panel at the very back is where you put your luggage in. Above it, the body rises in sensuous, unbroken curves. Now walk around to the side. From here, your eyes can follow the lines of this automotive masterpiece from one end to the other. Notice the horizontal line that sweeps from the front along the length of the car until just before the rear wheel. There, it meets a rising curve which pushes forward—a subtle manipulation that creates an aura of speed even when the car is standing still.
You can see that Pininfarina sculpted the contours in a continuous flow, with no sharp angles. He was inspired by aerodynamic studies developed for race cars. In fact, this car was intended for racing as well as pleasure. Every part – headlights, door handles, fenders, is integrated into the overall design. In earlier cars, such elements had been stuck on—the designer compared them to bathroom fixtures. Just in front of the windshield, those sleek vertical slots hold semaphores that pop out to act as turn signals.
From the Model T Ford on, most cars have been mass produced in an assembly line, with body panels stamped out by machines. But the Cisitalia’s lightweight, malleable aluminum panels were shaped over wooden molds, a labor-intensive process. Less than 200 were ever produced.
Pininfarina designed this car shortly after World War II. In a world emerging from the ruins, he called the Cisitalia, "new, alive and efficient." His design broke what he termed "many rust-covered rules... I had understood that the old shapes had seen their time," he said. "The car had to have pure, smooth, essential lines." Indeed, the forward-looking, progressive design of the Cisitalia seems to epitomize a sense of postwar optimism. Not surprisingly, it won numerous awards when it was unveiled at the most prestigious auto shows.
MoMA first exhibited the Cisitalia in 1951. The bright red two-seater model you see here was the very first car to enter any art museum collection; MoMA acquired it thirty years ago.

Der Cisitalia 202 GT war übrigens das allererste Auto welches einen Dauerausstellplatz im Museum of Modern Art in New York erhalten hat!!!!!! Also als Design Piece und nicht in einem Automuseum.

Es ist verständlich wenn man die andern Autos seiner Epoche anschaut, viel eckiger, viel mehr herausstehende Armaturen, Lichter, Spoiler, Griffe etc... Pininfarina hat eine saubere, ungebrochene Fläche kreiert in die alles einfliesst. Ein wahrlich wunderschönes Automobil. Einige Auto Designer haben gesagt, der Cisitalia 202 sei der Beginn des Coupé's gewesen.

Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947

Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947

Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947

Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947

Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947

Arthur Drexler, der 1987 an Krebs verstarb, leitete und prägte mit grossem Einfluss für 35 Jahre das Department of Architecture and Design des MoMA. Er betitelte den Cisitalia: "Running Sculpture".

Es wurden nur 170 Autos hergestellt, mit Aluminum chassis, zwischen 1947 und 1952. Es wurden viele Fiat Bestandteile verwendet, z.B. der Motor und das 4-Gang-Getriebe. Es ist der erste Nachkriegs GT Sportwagen.

Die berühmte Ausstellung von 1951 hiess einfach "Eight Automobiles". Das aerodynamische Styling war konkret der Angelpunkt. Ja da hat natürlich unser geliebtes Art Déco Desing stark mitgeholfen, diese Formen zu prägen.

Die sieben andern Autos der Ausstellung waren: 1930 Mercedes-Benz SS tourer, 1939 Bentley saloon with coachwork by James Young, 1939 Talbot-Lago Figoni teardrop coupé, 1951 Willys Jeep, 1937 Cord 812 Custom Beverly Sedan, 1948 MG TC, and the 1941 Lincoln Continental coupe.

Interessant, das Museum hat 2002 eine weitere Ausstellung gemacht und sogar noch einige Autos dazugenommen... sehr interessante Auswahl. Lassen wir das Moma sprechen:


New Acquisitions—Smart Car, Volkswagen “Beetle,” and Willys-Overland Jeep—Join Three Other
Automobiles in MoMA’s Collection 

AUTObodies: speed, sport, transport, an Inaugural Exhibition at MoMA QNS, is on View from
June 29 to September 16, 2002
NEW YORK, JUNE 2002—AUTObodies: speed, sport, transport presents the six automobiles from The Museum of Modern Art’s collection together in one gallery at MoMA QNS, including three acquisitions made this year: a Smart Car (2002), a Volkswagen Sedan, popularly known as the “Beetle” (1959), and a Willys-Overland Jeep (1953). The vehicles in the collection are innovative designs representing a range of purposes such as speed, sport, and transport. Together, they span more than five decades of automotive design; individually, the automobiles are recognized for their aesthetic excellence, functional capability, historical significance, practicality, or affordability — criteria also applicable to other mass-produced design objects in the Museum’s collection. Accompanying the automobiles is a selection of graphic design works from the Museum’s collection, including posters and A.M. Cassandre’s monumental billboard, Watch the Fords Go By (1937). The exhibition is organized by Peter Reed, Curator, Department of Architecture and Design, and is on view at MoMA QNS from June 29 to September 16, 2002.

Mr. Reed says, “Automobiles are among the most significant inventions of industrial civilization. Each of the
six cars in MoMA’s collection is an innovative, influential design. Historically, aesthetics and speed have been primary concerns. Today, we are no less concerned with aesthetics but recognize other compelling issues in personal transportation including affordability and efficiency.”
MoMA was the first art museum ever to collect and exhibit automobiles as examples of functional design. 
The Cisitalia “202” GT (1946) was the first vehicle to enter the collection, in 1972. AUTObodies is the ninth
automotive exhibition shown at MoMA, the first being the landmark presentation Eight Automobiles (1951). More recently, the Museum presented Different Roads: Automobiles for the Next Century (1999), which featured nine contemporary automobiles. 

Automotive design reflects not only a car’s primary purpose but also the designer’s ingenuity and intuitive
styling. Since the invention of the automobile, speed has been one of the most captivating aspects in car design, with Ferrari’s Formula 1 Racing Car 641/2 (1990) as a preeminent example. Consequently, the designer’s consideration of aerodynamics is a critical factor in the design process, often resulting in designs that are astonishingly beautiful and varied, like the Cisitalia and the Jaguar E-Type Roadster (1963). But even when designers and engineers address the automobile’s most pragmatic function—personal transportation—speed is no less a factor than the social and economic realities that have often called for small, affordable, and efficient vehicles, like the Volkswagen Type 1 Sedan and the Smart Car. The legendary American JeepM38A1, a small, lightweight fourwheel-drive vehicle, is a purely utilitarian design that forgoes styling in favor of efficiency and function.

MoMA’s Automotive Collection (in chronological order):

Cisitalia “202” GT Car. 1946 (produced 1948).
Manufactured by Pininfarina, Turin, Italy.
Designer: Pinin Farina (Italian, 1893–1966).
Aluminum body. Years produced: 1947–52. Number of cars produced: 170.
Gift of the manufacturer. Entered MoMA’s collection in 1972.
Designed in 1946 by the Italian car designer and coach builder Pinin Farina (who later changed his name to Pininfarina), the two-seater Cisitalia “202” GT was an aesthetic and technical achievement that changed the shape of postwar automobile body design. Pininfarina aimed to create a design that was “new, alive, and efficient.” The forward-looking design of the Cisitalia seems to epitomize a sense of postwar optimism. In the Cisitalia, there are no sharp edges. Swellings and depressions maintain the overall flow and unity, creating a sense of speed. The body was more or less handcrafted, and its aluminum panels were shaped over wood forms. Because of this timeconsuming process, only 170 models were produced between 1947 and 1952.

Truck: utility 1/4 ton 4x4, M38A1 (Jeep). February 1953 (design date: 1952).
Manufactured by Willys-Overland Motors, Inc., Toledo, Ohio (est. 1909).
Steel body. Years produced: 1952–68. Number of cars produced: 75,428 (April 1952–May 1955).
Gift of DaimlerChrysler Corporation Fund. Entered MoMA’s collection in 2002.

The Jeep is quintessentially a utilitarian vehicle—a reliable tool whose primary function is transport, on- or offroad. Its official name—Truck: utility 1/4 ton 4x4—means it is a four-wheel-drive vehicle capable of carrying 500 pounds. The Jeep was invented in 1940 when the U.S. Army issued specifications for a small, powerful, generalpurpose vehicle. Engineers from the American Bantam Car Company, Ford Motor Company, and Willys-Overland Motors, Inc., were largely responsible for designing the Jeep in a matter of weeks in response to the Army’s program. The Jeep was one of the most technologically advanced machines at the time. After the war, WillysOverland Motors continued to produce the vehicle for both military and civilian markets. In 1952 engineers at Willys-Overland modified the original 1940s design and produced the M38A1, a new model that was faster and slightly larger and that was widely considered to be the best military Jeep ever built. The M38A1 remained in production for sixteen years and strongly influenced the design of popular civilian Jeeps for more than three decades—a testament to its functional appeal and its transformation into a cultural icon.

Volkswagen, Type 1 Sedan. 1959.
Manufactured by Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg, West Germany.
Designers: Ferdinand Porsche (German, 1875–1951) and Volkswagenwerk (est. 1938).
Steel floor pan and body. Year introduced: 1938. Number of cars produced in 1959: 575,407
Acquired with assistance from Volkswagen of America, Inc. Entered MoMA’s collection in 2002.

The most popular automobile in the world, the Volkswagen Sedan Type 1, popularly known as the “Beetle,” completely transcended its German roots, quickly becoming an international phenomenon. The Volkswagen Sedan is remarkable for its formal consistency; its basic form has undergone relatively few changes since production began in 1938. The design of the Volkswagen can be traced to the noted German automobile designer Ferdinand Porsche. By the early 1930s, Porsche had developed a prototype for an affordable “people’s car” (the literal translation of Volkswagen). His challenge was to create an innovative design that was not simply a scaleddown large car. MoMA’s “mignonette green” VW exhibits several features typical of the cars sold in America at the time such as whitewall tires and “towel-rail” bumpers.

E-Type Roadster. 1963.
Manufactured by Jaguar Ltd., Coventry, England.
Designers: Sir William Lyons (British, 1901–85); Malcolm Sayer (British, 1916–70); and William M. Heynes (British, 1903-89).
Steel body. Years produced: 1961–74. Number of cars produced: 72,520.
Gift of Jaguar Cars. Entered MoMA’s collection in 1996.

If ever a sports car elicited powerful emotions, the sleek Jaguar E-Type (known in the United States as the XK-E) is probably one of the most evocative. The two-seat roadster with foldaway top was the fastest production sports car on the market in 1961. The influential E-Type was conceived as a synthesis of a competition racer and an everyday-use car, priced for a large consumer market. The aerodynamic styling of racing cars clearly influenced the body’s design—a functional yet unabashedly beautiful bulletlike silhouette.

Formula 1 Racing Car 641/2. 1990.
Manufactured by Ferrari S.p.A., Italy (est. 1946).
Company design (chassis). Body designer: John Barnard (British, born 1946).
Body materials: Composite with monocoque chassis in honeycomb with carbon fibers and Kevlar.
Year produced: 1990. Only car produced.
Gift of the manufacturer. Entered MoMA’s collection in 1994.

This high-performance car has a single purpose: to win the Grand Prix. It is the only car in MoMA’s collection designed exclusively for professional racing. It made its debut in 1990, driven by Alain Prost, one of the most talented racers for Ferrari. State-of-the art technology and engineering coupled with the designer’s intuitive abilities inform the car’s shape. There is nothing superfluous in this sophisticated machine, which has a top speed of 210 miles per hour. The monocoque (driver’s cockpit) is fabricated with innovative materials (carbon fiber and Kevlar, originally developed for the aircraft industry) that are stronger and lighter than aluminum, which was common in earlier cars.

Smart Car (“smart & pulse” Coupé). 2002.
Manufactured by Micro Compact Car smart GmbH, Renningen, Germany, and Hambach, France (est. 1994).
Steel frame and thermoplastic body panels. Year introduced: 1998.
Gift of Micro Compact Car smart GmbH, a company of the DaimlerChrysler Group. Entered MoMA’s collection in 2002.

Engineered by Mercedes-Benz, the design was further developed with input from the Swatch watch company. Only eight feet long, the efficient Smart Car challenges habits of personal mobility. It is especially well suited to urban environments. The Smart Car has been developed to maximize the convenience, comfort, and safety of driver and passenger, while minimizing the impact on the environment. The Smart Car’s body reveals a clear, functional, modular design. The black frame of reinforced steel—the so-called Tridion safety cell—gives the vehicle its inherent strength. Colorful, easily exchangeable body panels made of recycled plastic are virtually dent resistant and rust free. Since their debut in 1998, nearly half a million Smart Cars have been produced, becoming a common sight in Europe—sometimes two per conventional parking space.

About the Curator

Peter Reed, organizer of AUTObodies, was named Curator in the Department of Architecture and Design at MoMA in January 1999. He joined the staff in 1992 as an Assistant Curator and was appointed Associate Curator in 1994. He was a co-organizer of The Long View (2000), a collaboration between The Museum of Modern Art and The Municipal Art Society, and of ModernStarts (1999), the first cycle of exhibitions in the series MoMA2000. He also organized Alvar Aalto: Between Humanism and Materialism (1998), The United Nations in Perspective (1995), and Civic Architecture (1995). He assisted Terence Riley, Chief Curator of the Museum’s Department of Architecture and Design, with the organization of Frank Lloyd Wright: Architect (1994), the most comprehensive presentation of Wright’s architectural work since his death in 1959, and coedited the catalogue with Mr. Riley. Mr. Reed also coedited the catalogue that accompanied ModernStarts and has authored articles for publications such as Studies in Modern Art VI, A+U, and Connaissance des Arts. He has contributed to numerous publications, including World War II and the American Dream (National Building Museum and MIT Press, 1995) and Encyclopedia of Architecture:
Design, Engineering, and Construction (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1989). Mr. Reed holds a B.A. degree in art history from Lake Forest College and an M.A. and Ph.D. in art history from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was the recipient of two fellowships.


This exhibition is supported by Merrill Lynch, Pininfarina S.p.A., and Road & Track Magazine. Additional funding is provided by The Junior Associates of The Museum of Modern Art. The accompanying educational programs are made possible by BNP Paribas.

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Cisitalia 202 Gran Sport (Pininfarina), 1947

Cisitalia 202 Gran Sport (Pininfarina), 1947

O Augengenuss, O Portemonnaieschreck... der Cisitalia wurde aus der Mottenkiste geholt....sieht schon eher wie ein Raumschiff aus... Torino, we come...


Es ist ja bekannt, dass auf der Genfer Automesse nicht nur der jährliche Reigen der High End Hersteller stattfindet, sondern dass es auch ein Treffpunkt für Insolites ist, Prototypen und manchmal Skuriles, ich denke da an die ersten Eletroautos, die eher wie.. na schon wieder, wie Raumschiffe aussahen. Studenten der Master Of Arts in Transportation Design des Istituto Europeo di Design (IED) in Turin haben für den Autosalon von 2012 eine Neuinterpretation des Cisitalia 202 gemacht. Er wird Cisitalia 202 E Concept (das E steht für Evolution, nicht Electric) genannt. Die Planer möchten dem Anspruch gerecht werden, das Design des historischen Vorfahren mit Dimension und Kraft in die Neuzeit transponieren zu können. Take a deep breath and looky lookyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy

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