Mittwoch, 1. Mai 2013

Herakleopolis Magna und die Suppentöpfe

Tja, ein sehr spannendes und weitläufiges Thema sind die Urnen (Kanopen, canopic jars) welche die Organe der verstorbenen Persönlichkeiten aufbewahrten, bevor diese einbalsamiert wurden... Ab heute werde ich diese Objekte verfolgen und hoffe, einmal eine Vierer-Serie zu ersteigern... Ich tendiere zu Tonurnen oder Alabaster. Die Kanopen waren in Kisten aus Holz oder andern Materialien zusammengestellt. Diese Boxen sind recht selten, und daher ein begehrtes Sammelobjekt. Unten sehen wir ein besonders schön bemaltes, gut erhaltenes Pracht-Exemplar einer solchen Holzkiste. Zuerst der Fundort.

Heracleopolis oder Herakleopolis Magna (altägyptisch Nen-nesu, Neni-nesu, Ninsu, altgriechisch: Ἡρακλεόπολις) ist der griechische Name der altägyptischen Stadt Neni-nesu, die im südlichen Fayum in Ägypten in der Nähe des heutigen Ehnasya el-Medina lag, 15 Kilometer westlich von Beni Suef. Die Namen Henen-nesut, Nen-nesu, oder Hwt-nen-nesu in Altägyptisch bedeuten  'Haus des königlichen Kindes.' Die Bezeichnung Herakleopolis leitet sich vom griechischen Gott Herakles ab, der mit seinem altägyptischen Pendant Herischef gleichgesetzt wurde. Während der Zeit der Römischen Besetzung war die Stadt bekannt als Ehnasya, das etymologisch wieder im späteren koptischen Namen Hnas, in mittelalterlichen arabischen Schriften Ahnas zu finden ist. Heute ist die Stadt bekannt als Ihnasiya Umm al-Kimam ("Mutter der Scherben") und Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah.

Die Stadt war im Alten Ägypten die Hauptstadt des 20. oberägyptischen Gaues (vorderer Baumgau, auch Oleanderbaumgau oder Naretbaumgau genannt). Die Könige der 9. und 10. Dynastie residierten in Herakleopolis, bis die Stadt von Mentuhotep II. erobert wurde.

ungefähr etwa daaa... äh, seht Ihr mein Finger?? Naja..





First Intermediate Period (2181-2055 BC)

Herakleopolis first came to prominence and reached its apogee of power during the First Intermediate Period, between 2181-2055 BC. Eventually after the collapse of the Old Kingdom, Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. Herakleopolis became the principle city of Lower Egypt and was able to exercise its control over much of the region. Herakleopolis exerted such great control over Lower Egypt during this time that Egyptologists and Egyptian Archaeologists sometimes refer to the period between the 9th and 10th Dynasties (2160-2025 BC) as the Herakleopolitan Period. During this period, Herakleopolis often found itself in conflict with the de facto capital of Upper Egypt, ancient Thebes.

Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC)

Between the latter part of the First Intermediate Period and the early Middle Kingdom, the city became religious center of the cult of Heryshef, and the Temple of Heryshef was constructed.

Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 BC)

By the time of the Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 BC), Herakleopolis again rose in importance. There were many renovations and new constructions of the temple and mortuary centers that existed in the city, and it again became an important religious and political center.

Ptolemic Egypt (322-30 BC)

By the Ptolemaic period of Egypt (332-30 BC), Herakleopolis was still an important religious and cultural center in Egypt. The Greek rulers of this period, in an attempt to find connections and comparisons between their own gods and the gods of the land that they were now ruling, decided to associate the local god Heryshefwith their god Heracles, thus the name often used by modern scholars for Herakleopolis.

Roman Egypt (30-390 BC)


Hier in Hüroglüphen... Nen-nesu / Neni-nisu/ Ninsu

M23X1
N35
A17N35
N35
O49
M23X1N35
N35
O49
M23A17A17A17O49


Und von diesem Ort stammt dieser Suppentopf, na ja, ist kein Topf eher ein Holzkübel... ich liebe halt das Wort Suppe und Suppentopf und mach daher oft den Suppenkaspar...


336W

A large Egyptian wood canopic jar box for Pa-di-wesir
Heracleopolis, Ptolemaic Period, circa 332-30 B.C.

The chest of usual tall shrine shape with a cavetto cornice, composed of four panels, finely-painted with blue, green and red paint, each panel tapering at the top, with dowels for assemblage, each showing a scene within a naos, for a Sa-mer priest i.e. one connected with the cult of Heryshef at Heracleopolis, called Pa-di-wesir born to Ta-di-Iyemhotep, each side with the standard funerary offering formula asked on the deceased's behalf from Osiris who has his usual titles of 'Foremost of the west', 'Lord of Busiris', 'Great God', 'Lord of Abydos' and (possibly) 'Chemmis', the two wider-walls with an upper register showing the male deceased wearing a long kilt, adoring the four mummiform sons of Horus, one side-panel with jackal-headed Duamutef, human-headed Imsety, baboon-headed Hapy and falcon-headed Quebehsenef, the other panel with four human-headed sons, three registers of alternating tyets or Girdles of Isis and djed pillars, the front with a highly decorated False Door below, with two seated facing falcon-headed sphinxes above, wearing sun discs and named as 'The Behedite (i.e. Horus of Edfu), the Great God, Lord of Heaven', the other side with Horus the Behedite as a falcon above, wearing a sun disc with down-turned wings and two ostrich feathers, named 'Great God Lord of Heaven' and 'when he comes forth from the horizon, brightly-feathered', Osiris below shown as a personified djed pillar wearing the atef crown and carrying the crook and flail, adored by Isis and Nephthys who are named, 23¼in x 13in x 10½in (59cm x 33cm x 26.5cm)

Estimate:
£20,000 - 30,000
CHF 29,000 - 43,000
US$ 31,000 - 46,000
Na gute Nacht, bei 110'000 £ ausgestiegen, wäääh, Hammer £115'000 = 216'000 CHF

Provenance: Thompson Family Collection, Cambridge, acquired in 1949.

Literature: Cf. S. D'Auria, P. Lacovara, C.H. Roehrig, Mummies and Magic, the Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt, Boston, 1988, no.143.

A large Egyptian wood canopic jar boxA large Egyptian wood canopic jar box

A large Egyptian wood canopic jar boxA large Egyptian wood canopic jar box

A large Egyptian wood canopic jar boxA large Egyptian wood canopic jar box

A large Egyptian wood canopic jar box

Wir kennen auch einen Papyrus von Padiwesir, Nr UC 32374, aus der späten Dynastie auch Ptolemäische Periode genannt, 300-30 v.Chr., hier ist er:



Padiwesir war ein Mann, der ein öffentliches Amt bekleidete; es bedeutet Aufseher.

Unten ein weiterer Holzbehälter, der jedoch schon lange im Walters Museum wohnt. Neben Kanopen wurden auch Shabtis (auch Ushebtis, shawabti genannt) in solchen Boxen aufbewahrt. Shabtis sind kleine Statuen, welche man dem Toten beigab, damit sie sich im Nachleben um den Verstorbenen kümmerten. Sie sind meist mumienförmig und wurden auch "Antworter" genannt, weil sie stellvertretend für den Toten antworteten und diverse Arbeiten - meist landwirtschaftliche - für ihn verrichteten. (s. Totenbuch, Kapitel 6) Ab der 18. Dynastie werden sie in den Gräbern zur Regel. Zuerst gab man wenige, später wurden es mehrere, bis einer pro Tag beigegeben, d.h. 365; natürlich variierte diese Anzahl auch je nach Stand des Verstorbenen. Sie bestehen meist aus blau oder grün glasierter Terrakotta, wenige aus Ton, Stein, Bronze oder gar Holz. Alle Holzobjekte aus Aegypten sind sehr selten.



Die Gottheiten, die mit dem Tod und dem Leben nach dem Tod verbunden sind, sind auf den Seiten der Box vertreten. Oberhalb eines Portales sitzt die Figur des Schakals, Symbol des Gottes der Unterwelt Anubis. Isis und Nephthys stehen seitlich eines grossen Symboles Osiri's, die andern Seiten stellen die 4 Söhne von Horus dar. Alle Inschriften beziehen sich auf Osiris. (ca 850 bis ca 700 v.Chr. (3. Dritte Zwischenzeit)

Full Size: Box for Ushabtis or Canopic Jars

Full Size: Box for Ushabtis or Canopic Jars

Full Size: Box for Ushabtis or Canopic Jars

Full Size: Box for Ushabtis or Canopic Jars


Hier noch weitere Beispsiele.... 

. Canopic shrine (receptacle for intestines after mummification) in the form of a chapel, for Pharaoh Sheshonk I. Goddesses Isis and Nephtys guard the defunct's intestines. Alabaster (around 920 BCE), 3rd Intermediate Period, Egypt. Inv. 11100 . Cask for canopic jars,17th dynasty; Anubis painted on the sides of the box. From Dra Abulnaga,Egypt.

Large Anubis Trinket Box, 6.5 inches tall


Nachstehend eine Kanopenkiste mit Urnen aus einem Priestergrab von Mothucalled Pady-Imenet. 22. Dynastie. Luxor Museum.



Diese Gefässe enthielten die Eingeweide des berühmten Tutanchamun







Canopic Chest



































Tutanchamuns Kanopenschrein wurde aus einem einzigen Block von zart geäderten, halbdurchscheinenden Kalzit (Kalkspat) geschnitzt, mit kontrastierenden dunkelblauen Pigmenten. Der Schrein enthält vier Kanopen aus Alabaster, in welchen die Eingeweide bestattet wurden. Exquisit in Kalzit modelliert, repräsentieren alle Deckel jeweils Tutanchamun, das Nemes-Kopftuch separat geschnitzt, mit der sich aufbäumenden Uräusschlange und dem Geierkopf. Die Kobra symbolisiert Wadjet, der Aasvogel Nekhbet, Göttin von Oberägypten und später eine der beiden Hauptgöttinnen nach der Vereinigung von Unter- und Oberägypten. Die Gesichtszüge der Urnen sind sorgfältig in schwarz gemalt, mit Tupfern von Rot für die Lippen. Alle vier sind unten ausgehöhlt und tragen ein in Schwarz auf die Schulter gemaltes Symbol, damit man bestimmen konnte, für welchen Teil der Eingeweide jede Urne bestimmt war.

Hier ein schönes Foto mit den Attributen

File:Toetanchamon.jpg



In diesem vergoldeten Kanopenschrein war der kleinere Alabasterschrein enthalten. Vier Eckpfosten stützen das obere Zierdach, mit einem umlaufenden Fries aus Uraei, geschmückt mit farbigem Glas und Fayencen. Zwischen den Pfosten stehen elegante Wächtergöttinen in vergoldetem Holz: Isis, Nephthys, Neith und Selkis, jede erkennbar an den Hieroglyphen auf dem Kopf. Jede Figur steht mit den Füssen inwärts, die Arme ausgestreckt in einer Schutzgeste, mit dem Kopf leicht geneigt nach rechts oder links, somit die sonst so strengen Regeln der Frontalität brechend, die für die ägyptische Kunst gelten. Innerhalb dieses Rahmens kommt die eigentliche Wand des Schreines, vergoldet, mit Reliefzeichnungen und ebenfalls einem Zierfries von Kobras.


Nun widmen wir uns den Suppentöpfen, sprich den Behältern welche die menschlichen Organe enthielten. In Englisch Canopic Jar, auf Französisch: vase canope und auf Deutsch Kanope.

Schön ist es natürlich, wenn man eine ganze Serie hat, und im guten Zustand. Es ist interessant, die Formvielfalt zu studieren. Die Jagt ist auf jedenfalls eingeläutet.












jajaaaaa


شكلت اغطية أواني الأحشاء بالفعل بهيئة أبناء حو رس الاربعة وتعلق كل إناء منها بجز خاص من الجسد
دوا موت إف للمعدة  وتحمية الإلهة نيت



قبح سنو إف للأمعاء وتحميه الإلهة سرقت



إمستى للكبد وتحميه الإلهة إيزيس


حابى للرئتين وتحميه الإلهة نفتيس




وقد إستخدمت أواني الأحشاء كذلك بالنسبة لدفنات الحيوانات المقدسة فى العصور المتأخرة حيث عثر فى السيرابيوم على بعض الصناديق الخشبية المبطنة بالقار التي خصصت فيما يبدو لوضع الأحشاء الخاصة بداخلها بعد تحنيطه.


Read more: http://www.crownofegypt.com/2011/06/blog-post_25.html#ixzz2SuPvI2gI


The material that Canopic jars were made out of was calcite (which is Egyptian alabaster). The jars are also made out of limestone, wood, and pottery cartonnage. The jars were about 14.8 cm in height and 11.5 in width. The jars were also 11.4 cm in depth. The shapes of the jars were usually made in an oval shape.

- These four Mummiform gods main task was to protect the canopic jars that held internal organs of the deceased after the mummification of the body
- In the Osiris Myth, the four gods were rescued by the crocodile god Sobek, by the orders ofHorakhty
- These jars were originally were made of baked clay with simple stoppers of mud, but developed with time into stone sculptures showing the protectors at the jar top.
- Anubis gave them funerary duties of mummification, the Opening of the Mouth, the burial ofOsiris and all men.
- Horakhty made them protectors of the four cardinal points (north, south, east and west)
- They attend the judgment of the deceased in the Hall of Maat where they stand before Osirison a half opened blue water lotus.
- Each son was protected by a goddess.

four sons of horus photo:  CIMG2980.jpg

This set of canopic jars was made to contain the internal organs removed from the body during the mummification process. The four sons of the god Horus were believed to protect these organs. The jackal-headed Duamutef protected the stomach; the falcon-headed Qebehsenuef, the intestines; the baboon-headed Hapi, the lungs; and human-headed Imsety, the liver.

File:4SoH.jpg







# Imsety (man-headed): liver; Hapy (baboon-headed): Lungs; Qebehsenuef (falcon-headed): intestines; Duamutef (jackal-headed): stomach Pictures, Images and Photos

real canopic jar 1l

New Kingdom Period. 1567-1304 B.C. Prewitt/Allen Archaeological Museum (USA)

Egyptian canopic jar

Christie's. December 2005. Limestone canopic jars. Third intermediate period, circa 1070-712 B.C. Lids in the form of the Four Sons of Horus, Duamutef (jackal), Hapy (baboon), Qebehsenuef (hawk) and Imsety (human). Tallest: 35'6 cm. Estimate: $80,000

real canopic jar 2

Sotheby's. November 2005. Pair of Egyptian alabaster canopic jars from the 19th Dynasty, 1292-1240 B.C. One is 16 1/2 inches high and the other 16 3/16 inches high. It sold for $60,000.



Egyptian canopic jars. From the Old Kingdom, 26th Dynasty, 664 - 525 B.C. The mummification process involved the removal of organs, kept within the canopic jars, and guarded by one of the "Four Sons of Horus." Each deities likeness is portrayed on the lid of the vessel that holds the organ they guard. The ape-headed Hapi protected the lungs, the jackel-headed Duamutef the stomach, the human-headed Imseti the liver, and falcon-headed Kebehsenuef the intestines.


The 4 sons of Horus representing a Tetramorph and the 4 Elements.



These 4 Jars contained organs and the 4 figures represent the 4 sons of Horus

Hapi - Ape - Earth Element - guardian of the lungs - Keeper of the North

Duamutef - Jackal - Air Element - Guardian of the Stomach - Keeper of the East

Imsety - Bearded Man - Fire Element - Keeper of the South

Quebhsennuf - Falcon Head - Water Element - Keeper of the West


Below you will see a diagram of Horus 4 Sons representing the 4 Elements

BUT You may notice that they are different with the Tetramorphs of the Assyrians and Babylonians which are:

Fire =Mental = Lion

Earth = Physical = Man

Water = Emotion = Calf

Air = Spirit = Eagle





  1. God Imsety
    • Imsety's jar held the liver - Since the liver was thought of as the seat of emotion, a broken heart was the form of death attributed to the deity. Thus the name of this deity became the kindly one, which is Imsety in Egyptian.
    • Guardian of the South
    • Protected by the goddess Isis
    • Appearance human headed - Because the Egyptians saw the liver as the seat of human emotion, the depiction of Imsety was of a mummified human. 
  2. Hapy

    God Hapy
    • Hapy's jar held the lungs - Since drowning was the form of death associated with the lungs, the deity gained the name geese, in reference to floating on water, and later gained the name runner, in reference to river currents.
    • Guardian of the North
    • Protected by the goddess Nephthys
    • Appearance - baboon-headed mummified human 
  3. Duamutef

    God Duamutef
    • Duamutef's jar held the stomach - In war the most significant cause of death was from injuries in the torso and stomach. The deity protecting this organ was associated with death by war, gaining the name Duamutef meaning adoring his motherland
    • Guardian of the East
    • Protected by the war goddess Neith.
    • Appearance - jackal headed
  4. Qebehsenuef

    God Qebehsenuef
    • Qebehsenuef's jar held the intestines - this organ was used in sacrificed animals, by soothsayers, to predict the future, whereas the intestines were also the victims of poison. With death by poison, the canopic jar deity was given the name Qebehsenuf meaning the poisoner.
    • Guardian of the West
    • Protected by the poison goddess Selket
    • Appearance - falcon headed






Die vier Horussöhne (auch Horuskinder) Amset, Hapi, Duamutef und Kebechsenuef sind Kinder des GottesHorus dem Älteren (Horus the Elder (Horakhty)) und der Göttin Isis (Horakhty's richtige Frau). Sie sind vorwiegend Schutzgötter der Kanopen und stammen ausButo. Als Sterngötter sind sie den vier Himmelsrichtungen zugeordnet, und so befinden sich zur Zeit desMittleren Reiches ihre Namen beispielsweise an den vier Ecken der Särge.




Bis zur 18. Dynastie hatten die Horussöhne in ihrer Funktion als Wächter über die Eingeweide des Verstorbenen Menschengestalt. Beispielhaft zeigt sich dies an den Deckeln von Tutanchamuns Kanopen. Erst ab der 19. Dynastie stellte jeder Kanopendeckel den Kopf des entsprechenden Horussohnes dar:
HorussohnDarstellung
AmsetMensch
HapiAffe (Pavian)
DuamutefSchakal (Wolf)
KebechsenuefVogel (Falke)
Allerdings ist die Zuweisung der Tierköpfe von Schakal und Falke sowohl für Duamutef als auch Kebechsenuef nicht ganz eindeutig. In der Literatur gibt es hier unterschiedliche Darstellungen, die in beiden Fällen einmal für Duamtef den Schakal oder den Falken und für Kebechsenuef den Falken oder Schakal nennen.

Im Alten Reich gab es ursprünglich nur zwei Schutzgötter der Kanopen: Amset und Hapi, erst später wurden die beiden weiteren Schutzgötter Duamutef und Kebechsenuef hinzugefügt und alle vier als „Söhne des Horus“ bezeichnet. DiePyramidentexte stellen die vier Horussöhne als eine Art Führer für die Jenseitsreise des Toten dar: Sie nehmen an der Wiederbelebung teil, tragen ihn zu Grab, vollziehen die Mundöffnung und beteiligen sich an den Stundenwachen.
Jedoch besteht ihre Aufgabe vorwiegend darin, den Leichnam vor Hunger, Durst und die davon betroffenen Organe, die Eingeweide, zu schützen, wobei Herz und Nieren nicht zu diesen Organen gehören. Die bei der Mumifizierung im Alten Ägypten entnommenen Eingeweide wurden in Binden gewickelt und getrennt nach Leber, Lunge, Magen und Unterleibsorgane in vier Kanopen, mitunter auch in Miniatursärgen, beigesetzt (siehe Tutanchamun). Jede Kanope unterstand dem Schutz eines Horussohnes. Seit dem Neuen Reich gibt es folgende Zuordnungen der Horussöhne als Beschützer der Organe:



The four sons of Horus (auch Horuskinder) were a group of four gods in Egyptian religion, who were essentially the personifications of the four canopic jars, which accompanied mummified bodies. Since the heart was thought to embody the soul, it was left inside the body. The brain was thought only to be the origin of mucus, so it was reduced to liquid, removed with metal hooks, and discarded. This left the stomach (and small intestines), liver, large intestines, and lungs, which were removed, embalmed and stored, each organ in its own jar. There were times when embalmers deviated from this scheme: during the 21st Dynasty they embalmed and wrapped the viscera and returned them to the body, while the Canopic jars remained empty symbols.

The earliest reference to the sons of Horus is found in the Pyramid Texts where they are described as friends of the king, as they assist the king in his ascension to heaven in the eastern sky by means of ladders. Their association with Horus specifically goes back to the Old Kingdom when they were said not only to be his children but also his souls. As the king, or Pharaoh was seen as a manifestation of, or especially protected by, Horus, these parts of the deceased pharaoh, referred to as the Osiris, were seen asparts of Horus, or rather, his children, an association that did not diminish with each successive pharaoh.

Since Horus was their father, so Isis, Horus's original wife in the early mythological phase, was usually seen as their mother, though in the details of the funerary ritual each son, and therefore each canopic jar, was protected by a particular goddess. Just as the sons of Horus protected the contents of a canopic jar, the king's organs, so they in turn were protected. As they were male in accordance with the principles of male/female duality their protectors were female.
Imsety in human form, protected the liver and was protected by Isis.
Hapi in baboon form, protected the lungs and was protected by Nephthys.
Duamutef in jackal form, protected the stomach and was protected by Neith.
Qebehsenuef in hawk form, protected the large intestines and was protected by Serket.

The classic depiction of the four sons of Horus on Middle Kingdom coffins show Imsety and Duamutef on the eastern side of the coffin and Hapi and Qebehsenuef on the western side. The eastern side is decorated with a pair of eyes and the mummy was turned on its side to face the east and the rising sun; therefore, this side is sometimes referred to as the front. The sons of Horus also became associated with the cardinal compass points, so that Hapi was the north, Imsety the south, Duamutef the east and Qebehsenuef the west.

Until the end of the 18th Dynasty the canopic jars had the head of the king, but later they were shown with animal heads. Inscriptions on coffins and sarcophagi from earliest times showed them usually in animal form.

die vier Söhne



Anubis, Seth, Hathor und Horus
Stock vector of 'Egyptian gods and goddess - Anubis, Seth,Hathor, Horus - vector'
Stock vector of 'Egyptian Gods - vector'

Tomb of Queen Nefertari - the four sons of Horus.














Hapi

HAa5
p
ii
Hapi
in hieroglyphs
Hapi (xapi) the baboon headed son of Horus protected the lungs of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Nephthys.[11] The spelling of his name includes a hieroglyph which is thought to be connected with steering a boat, although its exact nature is not known. For this reason he was sometimes connected with navigation, although early references call him the great runner: "You are the great runner; come, that you may join up my father N and not be far in this your name of Hapi, for you are the greatest of my children – so says Horus"[12]
In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Hapi is given the following words to say: "I have come to be your protection. I have bound your head and your limbs for you. I have smitten your enemies beneath you for you, and given you your head, eternally."[13]
Spell 148 in the Book of the Dead directly associates all four of Horus's sons, described as the four pillars of Shu and one of the four rudders of heaven, with the four cardinal points of the compass. Hapi was associated with the north.[14]
Hapi, sometimes transliterated as Hapy, is one of the Four sons of Horus in ancient Egyptian religion, depicted in funerary literature as protecting the throne of Osiris ( usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned man with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side, and holding a symbolic crook and flail.) in the Underworld. He is not to be confused with another god of the same name. He is commonly depicted with the head of a hamadryas baboon ( The hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians and appears in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative name of 'sacred baboon'.), and is tasked with protecting the lungs of the deceased, hence the common depiction of a hamadryas baboon head sculpted as the lid of the canopic jar that held the lungs. Hapi is in turn protected by the goddess Nephthys.[1] When his image appears on the side of a coffin, he is usually aligned with the side intended to face north.[2] When embalming practices changed during the Third Intermediate Period and the mummified organs were placed back inside the body, an amulet of Hapi would be included in the body cavity.[2]
The spelling of his name includes a hieroglyph which is thought to be connected with steering a boat, although its exact nature is not known. For this reason he was sometimes connected with navigation, although early references call him the great runner, as below from Spell 521 of the Coffin Texts.
You are the great runner; come, that you may join up my father N and not be far in this your name of Hapi, for you are the greatest of my children - so says Horus"[3]
In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead he is given the following words to say:
I have come that I may be your protection, O N; I have knit together your head and your members, I have smitten your enemies beneath you, and I have given you your head forever.[4]
As one of the four pillars of Shu and one of the four rudders of heaven he was associated with the North, and is specifically referenced as such in Spell 148 in theBook of the Dead.



[edit]Imsety (Amset)

iim
z
tii
Imsety
in hieroglyphs
Imsety the human headed son of Horus, protected the liver of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Isis.[11] It seems that his role was to help revivify the corpse of the dead person, as he is asked to lift them up by Horus: "You have come to N; betake yourself beneath him and lift him up, do not be far from him, (even) N, in your name of Imsety."[12]
To stand up meant to be active and thus alive while to be prone signified death. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Imsety is given the following words to say: "I am your son, Osiris, I have come to be your protection. I have strengthened your house enduringly. As Ptah decreed in accordance with what Ra himself decrees."[13] Again the theme of making alive and revivifying is alluded to through the metaphor of making his house flourish. He does this with the authority of two creator gods Ptah and Ra (or Re).
Spell 148 in the Book of the Dead directly associates all four of Horus's sons to the four cardinal points. Imsety was associated with the south.[14]

[edit]Duamutef

N14G14t
f
orN14
D37
t
f
Duamutef
in hieroglyphs

Duamutef, son of Horus
Duamutef, the jackal headed son of Horus, protected the stomach of the deceased and was in turn protected by the goddess Neith.[11] It seems that his role was to worship the dead person, and his name means literally "he who worships his mother". In the Coffin Texts Horus calls upon him, "Come and worship my father N for me, just as you went that you might worship my mother Isis in your name Duamutef."[12]
Isis had a dual role. Not only was she the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, but she was also the consort of Horus the Elder and thus the mother of the sons of Horus. This ambiguity is added to when Duamutef calls Osiris, rather than Horus his father, although kinship terms were used very loosely, and "father" can be used as "ancestor" and "son" as "descendant".[15] In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead Duamutef is given the following words to say: "I have come to rescue my father Osiris from his assailant ."[13]
The text does not make it clear who might assail Osiris, although there are two major candidates. The obvious one is Set, the murderer of Osiris.[16] Somehow the son who worships his mother Isis is able to assist in overcoming Set. The other possibility is Apophis, the serpent demon who prevents the Sun's passage and thus the resurrection of Osiris.[17] Either way, Duamutef through his worship of Isis has the power to protect the deceased from harm.
Duamutef was also considered one of the four pillars of Shu, a rudder of heaven, and was associated with the east.[14]

[edit]Qebehsenuef (Kebechsenuef)

W15snsnsnf
Qebehseneuf
in hieroglyphs
Qebehsenuef was the falcon-headed son of Horus, and protected the intestines of the deceased. He was in turn protected by the goddessSerket.[11] It appears that his role was to refresh the dead person, and his name means literally "he who libates his siblings". Horus commands him, "Come refresh my father; betake yourself to him in your name of Qebehsenuef. You have come that you may make coolness for him after you ... "[12]
Libation or showering with cool water was a traditional form of worship in Ancient Egypt. There are many images of the pharaoh presenting libation to the gods. There is a sense of a dual function of cleansing and refreshing them.
After Set murdered Osiris he cut the body into pieces and scattered them around the Delta.[16] This was anathema to the Egyptians and the service that Qebehsenuef gives to the dead is to reassemble their parts so they can be properly preserved. In Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead he is given the following words to say: "I am your son, Osiris, I have come to be your protection. I have united your bones for you, I have assembled your limbs for you. have brought you your heart, and placed it for you at its place in your body."[13]
Qebehsenuef was the god associated with the west.[14]

[edit]Baboon, Jackal, Falcon and Human


The heads of the "four sons of Horus" ascanopic jar stoppers, on display at the British Museum
The reasons for attributing these four animals to the sons of Horus is not known, although we may point to other associations which these animals have in Egyptian mythology. The baboon is associated with the moon and Thoth, the god of wisdom and knowledge, and also the baboons which chatter when the sun rises raising their hands as if in worship.[18] The jackal (or possibly dog) is linked to Anubis and the act of embalming and also Wepwawet the "opener of the ways" who seeks out the paths of the dead.[19] The hawk is associated with Horus himself and also Seker the mummified necropolis god. Imseti, the human, may be linked to Osiris himself or Onuris the hunter.[20]
The Egyptians themselves linked them with the ancient kings of Lower and Upper Egypt, the Souls of Pe and Nekhen. In Spells 112 and 113 of the Book of the Dead which have their origins in the earlier Coffin Texts Spells 157 and 158, it is described how Horus has his eye injured, and because of this is given the sons of Horus:
As for Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef, their father is Horus, their mother Isis. And Horus said to Ra, place two brothers in Pe, two brothers in Nekhen from this my troupe, and to be with me assigned for eternity. The land may flourish, the turmoil be quenched. It happened for Horus who is upon his papyrus-column. I know the powers of Pe; it is Horus, it is Imsety, it is Hapy.[21]
The injury of Horus's eye is part of the myth cycle known as the Contending of Horus and Set recounting how they fought over the crown of Egypt.[22]
In a unique illustration in the tomb of Ay the sons of Horus are shown wearing the red and white crowns as the Souls of Pe and Nekhen, the souls of the royal ancestors.
The attributes of the sons of Horus are not limited to their role as the protectors of canopic jars. they appear as the four rudders of heaven in Spell 148 of the Book of the Dead, as four of the seven celestial spirits summoned by Anubis in Spell 17 of the Book of the Dead and through this are linked to the circumpolar stars of theGreat Bear (or Plough): "The tribunal around Osiris is Imset, Hapy, Duamutef, Qebehsenuf, these are at the back of the Plough constellation of the northern sky."[23]


Nephthys is a member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, a daughter of Nut and Geb. Nephtys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and the sister-wife of Seth.

Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliterated as Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, from Egyptian hieroglyphs).The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as "Lady of the House," which has caused some to mistakenly identify her with the notion of a "housewife," or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means quite specifically, "Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure" which associates her with the role of priestess.
This title, which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name, probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual. Along with her sister Isis, Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed theflagstaff. This entrance way symbolised the horizon or akhet.



In the funerary role, Nephthys often was depicted as a bird of prey called a kite, or as a woman with falcon wings, usually outstretched as a symbol of protection. Nephthys's association with the kite or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing, mournful cries) evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually offered for the dead by wailing women. In this capacity, it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts. She was, almost without fail, depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name, which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt), along with the sign for neb, or mistress (Lady), on top of the enclosure sign.[12]
Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition, i.e., the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys. The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead, who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. According to the Pyramid Texts, Nephthys, along with Isis, was a force before whom demons trembled in fear, and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat, as the region of the afterlife was termed.
It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed as the polar opposite of Isis, but rather as a different reflection of the same reality: eternal life in transition. Thus, Nephthys was also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying the night-bark on the journey of Ra, the majestic sun god, particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk, or twilight. Isis was Ra's companion at the coming of dawn

Nephthys and Seth

Though it commonly has been assumed that Nepthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis, recent Egyptological research has called this into question. Levai notes that while Plutarch’s De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity's marriage, there is very little specifically linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian sources. She argues that the later evidence suggests that:
while Nephthys’s marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology, it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. She was not paired with Set the villain, but with Set’s other aspect, the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period, where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler.[13]





Seth is a god of the desertstorms, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In later myths he is also the god of darkness and chaos. In Ancient Greek, the god's name is given as Sēth (Σήθ).

In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris' wife Isisreassembled Osiris' corpse and embalmed him. Osiris' son Horus sought revenge upon Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. The death of Osiris and the battle between Horus and Set is a popular event in Egyptian mythology.

His wife is originally Nephthys and in some accounts had relationships with other goddesses: Tawaret, Anat, and Astarte.
His child in some accounts is Anubis while in others it is Thoth.
His siblings are Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Horus.


Conflict between Horus and Set

In the mythology of Heliopolis, Set was born of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb. Set's sister and wife was Nephthys. Nut and Geb also produced another two children who became husband and wife: the divine Osiris and Isis, whose son was Horus. The myth of Set's conflict with Horus, Osiris, and Isis appears in many Egyptian sources, including the Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, the Shabaka Stone, inscriptions on the walls of the temple of Horus at Edfu, and various papyrus sources. The Chester Beatty Papyrus No. 1 contains the legend known as The Contendings of Horus and SetClassical authors also recorded the story, notably Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride.[4]
These myths generally portray Osiris as a wise lord, king, and bringer of civilization, happily married to his sister, Isis. Set was envious of his brother, and he killed and dismembered Osiris. Isis reassembled Osiris' corpse and embalmed him. As the archetypal mummy, Osiris reigned over the afterworld as a king among deserving spirits of the dead. Osiris' son Horus was conceived by Isis with Osiris' corpse. Horus naturally became the enemy of Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. Some Egyptologists have reconstructed these as Set poking out Horus's left eye, and Horus retaliating by castrating Set. However the references to an eye and testicles appear more indirect, referring to the evil Set sexually abusing the young Horus, who protects himself by deflecting the seed of Set, which can be construed as the theft of Set's virile power.[5]
It has also been suggested that the myth may reflect historical events. According to the Shabaka Stone, Geb divided Egypt into two halves, giving Upper Egypt (the desert south) to Set and Lower Egypt (the region of the delta in the north) to Horus, in order to end their feud. However, according to the stone, in a later judgment Geb gave all Egypt to Horus. Interpreting this myth as a historical record would lead one to believe that Lower Egypt (Horus' land) conquered Upper Egypt (Set's land); but, in fact Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt. So the myth cannot be simply interpreted.
Several theories exist to explain the discrepancy. For instance, since both Horus and Set were worshipped in Upper Egypt prior to unification, perhaps the myth reflects a struggle within Upper Egypt prior to unification, in which a Horus-worshipping group subjugated a Set-worshipping group. What is known is that during theSecond Dynasty, there was a period in which the King Peribsen's name or Serekh — which had been surmounted by a Horus falcon in the First Dynasty — was for a time surmounted by a Set animal, suggesting some kind of religious struggle. It was ended at the end of the dynasty by Khasekhemwy, who surmounted his Serekh with both a falcon of Horus and a Set animal, indicating some kind of compromise had been reached.
Regardless, once the two lands were united, Set and Horus were often shown together crowning the new pharaohs, as a symbol of their power over both Lower and Upper Egypt. Queens of the First Dynasty bore the title "She Who Sees Horus and Set." The Pyramid Texts present the pharaoh as a fusion of the two deities. Evidently, pharaohs believed that they balanced and reconciled competing cosmic principles. Eventually the dual-god Horus-Set appeared, combining features of both deities (as was common in Egyptian theology, the most familiar example being Amun-Ra).
Later Egyptians interpreted the myth of the conflict between Set and Osiris/Horus as an analogy for the struggle between the desert (represented by Set) and the fertilizing floods of the Nile (Osiris/Horus).


Die vier Horussöhne (auch Horuskinder) AmsetHapiDuamutef und Kebechsenuef sind Kinder des GottesHorus dem Älteren und der Göttin Isis[1]. Sie sind vorwiegend Schutzgötter der Kanopen und stammen ausButo. Als Sterngötter sind sie den vier Himmelsrichtungen zugeordnet, und so befinden sich zur Zeit desMittleren Reiches ihre Namen beispielsweise an den vier Ecken der Särge.[2]



Im Alten Reich gab es ursprünglich nur zwei Schutzgötter der Kanopen: Amset und Hapi, erst später wurden die beiden weiteren Schutzgötter Duamutef und Kebechsenuef hinzugefügt und alle vier als „Söhne des Horus“ bezeichnet. DiePyramidentexte stellen die vier Horussöhne als eine Art Führer für die Jenseitsreise des Toten dar: Sie nehmen an der Wiederbelebung teil, tragen ihn zu Grab, vollziehen die Mundöffnung und beteiligen sich an den Stundenwachen.
Jedoch besteht ihre Aufgabe vorwiegend darin, den Leichnam vor Hunger, Durst und die davon betroffenen Organe, die Eingeweide, zu schützen, wobei Herz und Nieren nicht zu diesen Organen gehören. Die bei der Mumifizierung im Alten Ägypten entnommenen Eingeweide wurden in Binden gewickelt und getrennt nach Leber, Lunge, Magen und Unterleibsorgane in vier Kanopen, mitunter auch in Miniatursärgen, beigesetzt (siehe Tutanchamun). Jede Kanope unterstand dem Schutz eines Horussohnes. Seit dem Neuen Reich gibt es folgende Zuordnungen der Horussöhne als Beschützer der Organe:
Horussohnzugeordnetes Organ
AmsetLeber
HapiLunge
DuamutefMagen
KebechsenuefUnterleib (Gedärme)
In den dazugehörigen Kanopeninschriften werden die vier Horussöhne nicht nur angerufen, sie sind zudem mit den vier Schutzgöttinnen IsisNephthysNeith undSelket verbunden: Je eine der vier Schutzgöttinnen beschützt einen Horussohn, der wiederum das ihm zugeordnete Organ bewacht. Die Schutzgöttinnen der jeweiligen Horussöhne waren[3]:
HorussohnSchutzgöttin
AmsetIsis
HapiNephthys
DuamutefNeith
KebechsenuefSelket




The reasons for attributing these four animals to the sons of Horus is not known, although we may point to other associations which these animals have in Egyptian mythology. The baboon is associated with the moon and Thoth, the god of wisdom and knowledge, and also the baboons which chatter when the sun rises raising their hands as if in worship.[18] The jackal (or possibly dog) is linked to Anubis and the act of embalming and also Wepwawet the "opener of the ways" who seeks out the paths of the dead.[19] The hawk is associated with Horus himself and also Seker the mummified necropolis god. Imseti, the human, may be linked to Osiris himself or Onuris the hunter.[20]
The Egyptians themselves linked them with the ancient kings of Lower and Upper Egypt, the Souls of Pe and Nekhen. In Spells 112 and 113 of the Book of the Dead which have their origins in the earlier Coffin Texts Spells 157 and 158, it is described how Horus has his eye injured, and because of this is given the sons of Horus:
As for Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef, their father is Horus, their mother Isis. And Horus said to Ra, place two brothers in Pe, two brothers in Nekhen from this my troupe, and to be with me assigned for eternity. The land may flourish, the turmoil be quenched. It happened for Horus who is upon his papyrus-column. I know the powers of Pe; it is Horus, it is Imsety, it is Hapy.[21]
The injury of Horus's eye is part of the myth cycle known as the Contending of Horus and Set recounting how they fought over the crown of Egypt.[22]
In a unique illustration in the tomb of Ay the sons of Horus are shown wearing the red and white crowns as the Souls of Pe and Nekhen, the souls of the royal ancestors.
The attributes of the sons of Horus are not limited to their role as the protectors of canopic jars. they appear as the four rudders of heaven in Spell 148 of the Book of the Dead, as four of the seven celestial spirits summoned by Anubis in Spell 17 of the Book of the Dead and through this are linked to the circumpolar stars of theGreat Bear (or Plough): "The tribunal around Osiris is Imset, Hapy, Duamutef, Qebehsenuf, these are at the back of the Plough constellation of the northern sky."[23



Das Horusauge oder Udjat-Auge ist eine ägyptische Hieroglyphe, die neben ihrer magischen Bedeutung auch für die Mathematik gebraucht wurde. Es hat in der Gardiner-Liste die Nummer D10.
File:Oudjat.svg



File:Eye Horus Louvre Sb3566.jpg



Ouadjet eye, the Sacred Eye of Horus; Uraeus snake and falcon (Horus). Faience fragment (about 600 BCE), Late Period, Egypt. (National Maritime Museum, Haifa, Israel)


Ein Paar haben wir auf sicher, eins ist davongeflogen... eins wartet noch in der Schleife

A pair of Egyptian bronze eyes

303. A pair of Egyptian bronze eyes
Late Period, circa 664-332 B.C.
The slender curved eye rims with extended cosmetic lines and pronounced tear ducts, with white stone sclera and black circular pupils, framed by curved bronze eyebrows,each eye approx 3in (8cm) long, mounted
Sold for £2,375 (CHF 3,442) inc. premium

Provenance: J.A. Junot Collection, acquired before 1975.

A pair of Egyptian bronze eyes

351
A pair of Egyptian bronze eyes
Late Period, circa 664-332 B.C.
The slender arched bronze eye rims with extended cosmetic lines, inlaid with alabaster sclera with large black irises, framed by undulating curved bronze eye brows Each eye 2¾in (7.2cm) long, mounted
Sold for £2,500 (CHF 3,623) inc. premium

Provenance: Acquired on the French art market, formerly in a French collection since the 1970s.

A pair of Egyptian bronze eyes

346
A pair of Egyptian bronze eyes
Late Period, circa 664-332 B.C.
The arched bronze eye rims with extended cosmetic lines, inlaid with limestone sclera, painted with round black irises, framed by curved bronze eye brows, each eye 3¼in (8cm) long, mounted (4)
Estimate:
£800 - 1,200
CHF 1,200 - 1,700
US$ 1,200 - 1,900
Provenance: Acquired on the French art market, formerly in a French collection since the 1970s.


Oči





Mummy Making 101

While they may not have been obsessed with death, the ancient Egyptians were obsessive record keepers.  They wrote down everything, from transactions between merchants to poems and love letters.  But two things are conspicuously missing from the written record:  how to build pyramids and how to make mummies.  Bob Brier suggests that mummy making might have been kept mum because it was a trade secret, but we are not entirely without clues.
Huy's mummy workshop
Huy's mummy workshop
One source of insight comes from the tomb of Huy, himself an embalmer.  As stated above, Egyptians believed the afterlife was sort of a better version of their mortal lives, and so they decorated their tombs with scenes from their daily lives, including both work and play.  Being an embalmer, Huy chose to illustrate his tomb with a scene from his mummy workshop.  Dr. Brier points out that while this scene does not show an actual mummification in progress, it does show some of the tools used, and from this we can get an idea of how Huy plied his trade.
Herodotus—Greek historian and early authority on mummification (Photo by Marsyas)
Herodotus—early authority on mummification (Photo by Marsyas)
Another source is the writings of the Greek historianHerodotus, who lived in the fifth century BC and travelled to Egypt around 454 BC.  Although Herodotus did not witness a mummification first hand, he does seem to have found a chatty embalmer who confided in him three different methods which conveniently correspond with upper, middle, and lower class patrons.  Since the account of an upper class mummification was obviously the most complete (no cutting corners), that was the description most useful to Dr. Brier.
Based on sources such of these, a generally accepted, albeit incomplete, description of the process of royal mummification arose.  The reader should bear in mind that this description is concerned mostly with the practical concerns of mummification—how to dry out a body, and fast.  Mummification was also a very sacred ritual that involved processes that were of a strictly spiritual nature.  For a more complete account, the reader is referred to Dr. Brier’s book, Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art.
Replicas of the sort of hooks used to remove the brain and clean the cranial cavity (Photo courtesy of The Science Museum (UK) Science and Society Picture Library)
Replicas of the sort of hooks used to remove the brain and clean the cranial cavity (Photo courtesy of The Science Museum (UK) Science and Society Picture Library)
The embalming took place inside a sacred tent called the ibu, or, “Place of Purification.”  The body would have first been washed with palm wine and then rinsed with water.  Next, the brain would have been removed.  The ancient Egyptians did not see the brain as a vital organ—thought and emotion were believed to take place in the heart, so the brain was simply removed.  Long hooks were inserted through the nostrils and into the skull, where it was originally believed they were used to tear away the brain a piece at a time.  As we will learn a little later, this was probably not exactly how the hooks were used.
Priests embalming a mummy
Egyptian priests used mixtures of palm wine and fragrent resins to cleanse and seal the body
Once the brain was removed, palm wine and resin were poured through the nostrils to rinse and purify the hollow skull.  This would have removed any remaining blood and brain matter, and the natural disinfecting properties of the wine and resin would have helped kill bacteria, further hampering decomposition.  As the wine evaporated the resin would gradually harden, effectively sealing the skull from within.  More resin would be added later.  Once the brain was removed, the embalmers would have then begun the removal of the internal organs.
Bronze embalming tools (Photo courtesy of The Science Museum (UK) Science and Society Picture Library)
Bronze embalming tools (Photo courtesy of The Science Museum (UK) Science and Society Picture Library)
Extraction of the internal organs was important because, being composed of very soft and moist tissues, they were prone to rapid decay.  Bear in mind that the goal of mummification was to preserve the body before decomposition set in, so the embalmers would have wanted to empty and purify the torso as soon and completely as possible.   A small incision would have been made on the left side of the body through which the organs were removed.
Herodotus speaks of the embalmers using a knife made of black stone, probably obsidian, to make this incision.  However, since copper and bronze cutting tools have been found with other embalming tools, it was assumed that the stone knife was probably used for ritual purposes.  But as we shall see, Mumab taught us that Herodotus was probably right about the stone knife being used to make the incision.
Weighing the heart against the feather of Ma’at—one of the trials of the afterlife (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)
Weighing the heart against the feather of Ma’at—one of the trials of the afterlife (Photo by Jon Bodsworth)
Like any modern surgeon, the priest responsible for removing the organs through this small incision would have had nimble hands.  The heart was not removed because it was thought to be the center of human thought and emotion, and would be needed to pass the trials of judgment and enter the afterlife.  Other than the heart, everything else came out.  Once the organs were removed, the liver, intestines, stomach, and lungs were separated and readied for preservation.
The organs would have first been washed with palm wine and the aromatic resins of frankincense and myrrh.  In addition to the preservative qualities of these resins, Drs. Brier and Wade discovered that the frankincense and myrrh helped mask the rather unpleasant odors of working with a dead body.  As devout as the embalmer priests may have been, they were only human, and temperatures inside the ibu tent would have soared above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.   Any relief from the smell would have been welcomed.
Canopic jars of Sitwerut, wife of Horkherty (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Canopic jars of Sitwerut, wife of Horkherty (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Once they were cleansed, the liver, intestines, stomach, and lungs were packed with natron into four special vessels called canopic jars.  Canopic jars could be made of anything from pottery and limestone to more precious materials such as alabaster or even gold.  There were specific jars for each of the four organs, and their look and religious function evolved over time.

During the Old Kingdom Period canopic jars were plain-featured with unadorned lids.  Old Kingdom canopic jars were rarely inscribed in any sort of way.  During the Middle Kingdom Period inscribed canopic jars were more common, and the stoppers were shaped like human heads, presumably the deceased.  By the Late Period the jars were much more ritualized, with lids shaped like the heads of the Four Sons of Horus, the gods responsible for the protection of their respective organs.
canopic jars chartWith the brain removed and the viscera packed into their canopic jars, the embalmers were now ready to begin the preparation of the body itself.  First the inside of the torso would be cleansed with palm wine and fragrant resins to flush out any remaining soft tissues and blood.  Then the inside of the body was stuffed with small sacks of natron to absorb moisture from within, and the body itself would have been covered in a mound of natron to pull moisture out.
Natron with a bowl of sawdust, also often used in mummification
Natron with a bowl of sawdust, also often used in mummification
Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium chloride (salt), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), and sodium carbonate decahydrate (ash soda).  Many of the rivers and lakes in Egypt’s delta had a high level of salinity, and when water from these sources evaporated they left deposits of natron on their banks.  One area had such an abundance of these salt lakes that it was named Wadi Natrun, the Valley of Natron.  Harvesting this valuable resource for the embalming industry would have undoubtedly been a lucrative business.
Bag of natron from Tutankhamun's embalming cache (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Bag of natron from Tutankhamun's embalming cache (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Natron is vital to mummification because it is the key to dehydrating the body fast enough to prevent decomposition.  Natron helps break down fats into oil and then absorbs these and other liquids from the body.  As the natron absorbed the bodily fluids it would harden into a crust which could then be removed.  Another chemical change that occurs with natron is that as it absorbs moisture it increases in alkalinity, which further helped with mummification by inhibiting the growth of bacteria.
Two of the unanswered questions about mummification, prior to Mumab, were A) how much natron did it take to mummify a human body, and B) how long did mummification take?  There were no real clues pertaining to the first question, but Herodotus contended that 70 days was the standard period for mummification.  After 40 days or so the sacks of natron would have been removed from the body cavity and then replaced with clean natron sacks, resin-soaked linen, aromatic herbs, and wood chips.
It was believed that after 40 days the body would have been finished drying.  The abdominal incision would have been sewn up, the skull stuffed with resin-soaked linen, and all other openings sealed.  Originally the organs would have been left in the canopic jars, but in later years the organs were removed, wrapped in resin-soaked linen, and sealed up inside the body
The body would have then been washed again with palm wine and anointed with resin and pleasant-smelling oils.  The body was now ready to be wrapped in linen, with resin applied to the bandaging to act as a glue and sealant.  The mummy might have had certain details and scriptures painted on it before being placed inside of one or more coffins and finally interred.
A fully wrapped and painted mummy, currently in the British Museum (Photo by Klafubra)
A fully wrapped and painted mummy, currently in the British Museum (Photo by Klafubra)
Opening of the mouth ceremony—preparing the body for the afterlife
Opening of the mouth ceremony—preparing the body for the afterlife
In all, the “70 Day Rule” for mummification could be broken down into 15 days for cleansing and purification, 40 days for dehydration in natron, and then 15 days for wrapping and final rites.  This 70-day cycle also coincided with the 70 days the star Sirius spent “dying” as it made its journey across the night sky into the grave of the horizon.  Sirius, the “Dog Star,” was associated with Anubis, the god of mummification and the afterlife.


Vater Osiris, Mutter Isis und der Sohn Horus d.J., wunderschönes Objekt



















Horus kills Seth



hier noch ein Bild mit beiden Göttern







Statue of God Horus at the Temple at Edfu in Egypt which is dedicated to the God Horus
Statue of God Horus at the Temple at Edfu in Egypt which is dedicated to the God Horus Stock Photo - 14338657




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