Freitag, 3. Februar 2012

Chronology of Styles in New York Architecture

Weil ich eine extreme Affinität zum Skyscraper-Stil im Art Déco habe (und Hochhäuser schon seit 1988 (meine erste Reise nach HK, hat mich etwas mehr beeindruckt als Tokyo,wo ich 1986 das Erste Mal war) liebe, hauen wir hier mal einen Zeitablauf mit termini fachsimply hin, damit man det alles einordnen kann:



The Seventeenth Century:

17th Century Colonial
        Term applies to both colonial Dutch and English architecture.  

The Eighteenth Century:

Georgian (1714-1776)
        English-inspired colonial architecture.  Marked by a greater concern for
        style and higher standards of comfort.  Fairly homogeneous in both New
        England and Southern colonies.

Neoclassicism (c.1780-1820)
        There are several variations:
        Federalist:  Especially common in New England; a traditionalist
        approach to classicism, heavily influenced by English models.  Charles        Bulfinch, Samuel MacIntyre.
        Idealist:  An intellectual and moral approach to classicism, at first
        linked to Roman models.  Symbolic and associational values stressed
        Best example:  Thomas Jefferson.
        Rationalist:  Emphasized structure and classical building techniques,
        such as stone vaulting and domes.  Benjamin Latrobe.

Notes on the English Regency style.

The Nineteenth Century:

The period is characterized by Romantic revivals and eclecticism.

Greek Revival (1818-1850)
        The first truly national style in the United States.  Strong associational
        values.  Permeated all levels of building.

Gothic Revival (c. 1820-1860)
        Strong associational values of religion and nature.  Found in both ecclesiastical
        and residential architecture.  A wide range of archaeological accuracy, from
        Richard Upjohn's urban churches to "Carpenter's Gothic" cottages.

The "Corporate Style" (c.1800-1900)
        Practical architecture for engineering and commercial purposes; especially
        early factories.  In its time thought to be a "style-less style."

Egyptian Revival (1820-1850)
        Used primarily for memorials, cemetaries, prisons, and later, warehouses.
Neo-Georgian/ neo-Federal

Italianate, or Italian Villa Mode (1840-1860)
        A residential style used by A.J. Downing and others; a Renaissance revival.

Second Empire Baroque (1860-1880)
        French origin; used for public and residential architecture.

High Victorian Gothic (1860-1880)
        English origin; used for ecclesiastical, public, and residential architecture.
Romanesque Revival/ Stick and/or Shingle Style/Queen Anne (1879-1900)
Arts and Crafts
        Used for residential architecture.
Expressionism
Rundbogenstil (German round-arched neo-Romanesque) 
Moorish Revival Popular for synagogues.

Chicago School (1885-1915)
        Commercial architecture; skyscrapers.

Classical Revival (1885-1920)
        Also called Academic Classicism, or Beaux-Arts Classicism.
        Related revivals:  Renaissance Revival, French Renaissance, Flemish.

Gothic (Collegiate Gothic) (1885-1930)

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
        Traditional styles continue; Modernism arises.

Prairie School (1893-1920)
        Frank Lloyd Wright and his followers.

Spanish Revival (1920-1930)

Wrightian, or Organic Architecture (1920-1959)
        F.L. Wright's later style.

Historicist Skyscrapers (1900-1940)

Art Nouveau

Neo-Gothic (1905-1930)

Setback Style Skyscrapers  (1920-1950)
 Also called Wedding Cake style.  
  
Art Deco (1925-1940)
        Also called Art Moderne, Streamlined Modern.

International Style:
        International Style I (Early Modern) (1929-1940)
        International Style II (1945-1970)

Formalism (1957-present)
        A renewed interest in monumental qualities and an interest in form for
        expressive  purposes.  Eero Saarinen.
Futurist (1955-present)
         usually marked by striking shapes, clean lines, and advanced materials.

Brutalism (1957-present)
        Style inspired by LeCorbusier's late works; characterized by the use of
        rough-cast concrete and massive forms.  
Structural Expressionism. Also called "high-tech modernism",(1975 to the present)

Late Modern (International Style III) (1970-present)
        Philip Johnson (before his conversion to Post-Modernism) and I.M. Pei, among
        others.

Post-Modernism (1964-present)

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