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 In Russian and French prisons by Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin



near to insanity. . . . No books are given in
the common roo^ns, excepting religious ones,
which are taken for making cigarettes." Police
Priso7is at St Petersburg.

OiThe Official Report of the St. Petersburg

Committee of the Society for Prisons, pub-

ilished at St. Petersburg in 1880, described



238 In Russian and French Prisons,

tlie prisons of the Russian capital as fol-
lows :

*' The prison (Litovskiy Zamok) is built for
700 inmates, and tlie depot-prison for 200
men ; but they often contain, the former from
900 to 1000 persons, and the depot-prison
from 350 to 400, and even more. Besides,
loLg since, tliese buildings correspond no more,
neither to the hygienic conditions, nor to those
of a prison altogether."

M. Katkoff's review, the BussJciy Vyestnik,
does not give a better idea of Russian prisons.
After having given a description of the police-
stations, the author, M. Mouravioff, says that
the ostrog is not better; it is usually an old,
dirty building, or a collection of such buildings
enclosed by a wall. It is not better inside:
moisture, dirt, overcrowding, and stench, such
is the type of all ostrog s in the capitals and in
provincial towns.

*' The dress is of two different kinds ; the
old and insufficient dress which is usually
worn by the prisoners, and another which is
distributed when the prison is to be shown to
some visitor ; but usually it is kept in the
store-house. . . .'No schools, no libraries. . . .
The depots for convicts are still worse. . . .



A Foreigner on Rnssian Prisons. 239

Let us stop before one of the rooms. It is a
spacious roora with platforms along the walls
and narrow passages between. Hundreds of
women and children are collected here. It is
the so-called family-room, for the famihes
of the convicts. In this dreadful atmosphere
you see children of all ages in the greatest
misery. No Crown dress is allowed them, and
therefore their bodies are covered with rags
with dirty strips of cloth torn to pieces, which
can shelter neither from cold nor from wet ;
and with these rags they will be sent on their
journey to Siberia." Russlciy Vyestnik, 1878.

M. Yadrintseff the same whom Mr. Lans-
dell condescends now to quote writes as follows
about the Siberian prisons which Mr. Lansdell
imagines he knows after the hasty visits he has
paid to them. I condense the description :

" Almost in every ostrog there is a nearly
underground corridor, moist and fetid, a grave ;
in this corridor are the cells for the more im-
portant prisoners ivaiting for their trial. These
cells are half underground. The floor is
always wet and rotten. Mould and fungoid
growths cover the walls. Water is continually
oozing from beneath the floor. A small
painted window makes the cell always com-



240 In Russian and FrencJi Prisons.

pletely dark. The men are kept there in irons.
There is no bedstead, no bed; the prisoners
are lying on the floor which is covered with
worms and myriads of fleas ; and for bed they
have rotten straw, for covering their poor cloak,
torn to pieces. The moist and cold air makes
you shiver even in the summer. The sentry
runs away to breathe fresh air. And in
such cells the prisoners spend several years,
waiting for' their trial! These prisoners, even
the most healthy of them, become insane. * I
remember to have heard once in the night
horrible cries,' says one of the prisoners in his
memoirs ; ' it was a giant who was becoming
insane.' '^

And so on, and so on. I could fill pages
with like descriptions. Was Mr. Lansdell
shown all this ? If not, was I not right to
say that he ought to notice the existing
Eussian literature on the subject ? And will
Mr. Lansdell still maintain that he has noticed
it?

As to Herzen's work, Mr. Lansdell's reply
deserves a few words more. I have quoted,
in my paper on Russian Prisons, a description
of the Perm prison, which was written two
years ago, that is, in 1881, by an inmate of the



A Foi'eigner on Russia^i Prisons. 241

prison. It was published by Professor Stasule-
vitcli in so scrupulously managed a paper as
was tlie Poryadoh ; it was reproduced by all
the newspapers, and was contradicted by no-
body; even the usual official denial did not
appear. What does Mr. Lansdell oppose to
this recent testimony ? He writes that he has
consulted the memoirs of Alexander Herzen,
who was at Perm, 'where one of the prisons
is situated of which Prince Kropotkin com-
plains so bitterly.' But Herzen was settled at
P(;rm forty years ago ; he never was there in a
prison, and, as far as I remember, he does not
even speak about the prisons at Perm. Shall
I suppose that Mr. Lansdell knows of Herzen's
work but its title ?

As to the title, Mr. Lansdell accuses Herzen
again and again of having published a book on
his exile to Siberia without having been there.
In the preface to his book. Through Siberia, he
writes :

" My speciality in Siberia was the visitation
of its prisons and penal institutions, considered,
however, not so much from an economic or
administrative, as from a philanthropic and
religious point of view. Much has been written
about them that is unsatisfactory, and some

R



242 In Russian and French Prisons.

things that are absolutely false. One author has
published ^ My Exile to Siberia' ivho never went
therer

The trutli is that Herzen has never written
about the prisons and penal institutions of
Siberia, in fact, nothing about Siberia at all.
He has written his memoirs under the title
Past and Thoughts (Byloye i Dumy), one
chapter of which, dealing with his incarcera-
tion at St. Petersburg and exile to Perm, was
entitled "Prison and Exile" ('' Tyurma i
Ssylka.") It is probably this chapter which
was translated into English ; and if the Eng-
lish publisher has thought it necessary to give
it the title of My Exile to Siberia, I suppose
that Herzen had nothing to do with that. The
French, German, and Italian translations of the
same work are simply entiiledi Prison and Exile. ^

* Mr. Lansdell repeats this accusation against Herzen
with such a persistence, in different parts of his book, and
in the Contemjwrary Review, that, in order to be certain
about this subject I wrote to the son of Herzen, the distin-
guished Professor of Physiology, A. A. Herzen. Here is
a translation of his reply, dated Lausanne, February 26,
1881 :

" Sir, You are quite right ; it is merely the part of the
memoirs of my father which deals with his arrest and exile ;
there is not a word about Siberia. It is the English pub-
lisher who has added to the title the words ' to Siberia,'



A Foreigner on Russian Prisons. 243

In any case, Herzen's Memoirs, forty years
old, have nothing to do with Siberia, and still
less with the Perm prisons of our time; and
that is precisely the subject which interests us.

I wrote further that the chief prison of St.
Petersburg, the Litovskiy Zaraok (of which I just
have given an idea by quoting a few lines from
M. Nikitin's description), is an " old-fashioned,
damp, and dark building, which should be
simply levelled to the ground." '' To this pro-
ceeding," Mr. Lansdell says, '' I would not
utter a word of protest." He admits, too,
that I, " perhaps justly,'* " find a good deal of
fault with this prison." Well, I am glad to
hear that Mr. Lansdell finds a good deal of
fault with one Russian prison ; but I regret
that, though having visited the Litovskiy
Zamok, he did not describe in his book the
cliief jjrison of the Russian cajpital ; his readers
would know what they have to expect from
provincial prisons.

As to the overcrowding of Russian prisons,

without the knowledge of my father, and my father has
puhUcly protested at once against this ^humbug ' {a Vinsu de
mon pere, et mon pere a des alors proteste puhliquement
contre ce ' humbug.') . . .

'' EeUeve me, &c., (Signed) A. Herzen."

E 2



244 I^^ Russian and French P7'-isons.

Mr. Lansdell doubts tliey were so over-
crowded as I said. I cannot answer better
than by producing a few quotations from tlie
materials I have at hand :

" The Tomsk depot " (writes the corre-
spondent of the Siberian Gazette) is over-
crowded. To the 1520 people we had, 700
new ones are added, and so the prison which
was built for 900 people contains 2220 inmates.
There are 207 on the sick-list. (Siberian Gazette
and Moscow Telegraph, August 28, 1881.)

At Samara : '' The average number of
inmates in our prisons, on the first of each
month for this year, was 1147; the aggregate
cubic capacity of all our prisons being for 552
inmates." (Golos, May 13, 1882.)

At Nijniy-Novgorod : '' The prison, built
for 300 men, contains, while the rivers are
open for navigation, as many as 700, some-
times 800 prisoners." (Official report men-
tioned by the Golos, March, 1882.)

In Poland: ''Each place in the prisons of
Poland is occupied by four prisoners instead of
one. It is proposed to build a number of new
prisons" (they are not yet built). {Moscow
Telegraph, Isovember, 1881.)

Shall I fill one page or more with like



A Foreigner on Russian Prisons. 245

quotations, or, rather, see what is said by
official persons entrusted with the supervision
of prisons :

M. Mouravioff, a contributor to M. Katoff's
review, in an elaborate paper on Russian
prisons (written precisely in the spirit that the
admirers of the Russian Government like),
says : '' Almost all our prisons contain one
and a half to twice the number of prisoners for
which they were built." (" Prisons and the
Prison Question," Busshiy Vyestnik, 1878.)

The Siberian stryapchiy, M. Mishlo, writes
about Siberian prisons which were under his
own control : " The jailor brought me to the
rooms. Everywhere dirt, overcrowding, wet,
want of air and light. After having visited
the rooms, I entered the hospital. As soon as
I entered the first room I involuntarily shrank
back before the unutterable stench. ... The
cabinets were luxurious apartments in com-
parison with the hospital. . . . Everywhere the
number of prisoners is thrice the number ad-
mitted by the law. At V. (Verkhneudinsk), for
instance, the ostrog is built for 240 inmates,
and usually contains 800." (Otechestvennyia
Zapishi, 1881.)

It was precisely to such overcrowding.



246 In Russian and French Prisons.

together with a phenomenal amount of dirt, that
the famous typhus epidemic at the Kieff
prison was due. It may have been imported
by Turkish prisoners, as the authorities said,
but its dreadful ravages were owing to over-
crowding and filth. " Buildings erected for
550 inmates contained twice this number,"
says the Golos correspondent, in a letter dated
the 30th of October, 1880; and he adds :
*' The professors of the University who have
visited the prison, arrived, as known, at the
conclusion that overcrowding was the chief
cause of the epidemic." The circular of the
Chief Director of Prisons (mentioned in chap-
ter II.) confirms, in its first paragraphs, the
exactitude of this conclusion. No wonder
that, after a partial evacuation of the prison,
there were still 200 laid up with typhus out of
750 inmates. No wonder also that the mor-
tality at Kharkofi' has assumed the proportion
(200 out of 500) described by the priest of the
prison, in a sermon which was reproduced by
the local Eparchial Gazette a paper appearing
under the supervision of the Archbishop.

I come now to the fortress of St. Peter and
St. Paul, where Mr. Lansdell was admitted to
look through inspecting holes into the cells of



A Foreigner on Russian Prisons, 247

the Troubetskoi bastion and to enter an empty
cell, and where I was kept for nearly two years
in the same building.

The system of Mr. Lansdell in dealing with
this subject is really very strange. He men-
tions first what a friend of his (a person of
high " intelligence and probity," who " moves
in high circles at St. Petersburg") said about
prisoners in the fortress. They were fed, he
said, " with salt herrings and given no water
to drink, so that they became half mad with
thirst;" this "business was only stopped by
Count Schouvaloff;" but his friend ''still
thinks that drugs are sometimes given to
prisoners to make them frantic, in the hope
that during their excitement they may be led
to confess." Then he describes his own visit
to the fortress, and how he '' peeped breath-
lessly," after having " duly prepared his nerves
to see how this arch-offender is treated." And
as he is shown nothing but a man lying at this
moment on his bed, or a lady reading at her
table, he discharges his bad temper against the
'' exaggerated and vindictive expressions of
released prisoners " who '' vilify the land of
their punishment," &c. I really do not see
how the " vindictive " writers could be held



248 hi Russian and Fi^eitck Prisons.

responsible for the opinions of Mr. Lansdell's
friends, who probably gather their information
from the high circles where they move, and
have sufficient intelligence to discriminate
between mere fables and reality.

As to '' vindictive writers " who are accused
of exaggerations, there is only one who has
written about the Troubetskoi bastion, and
this one seems to be quite unknown to Mr.
Lansdell I mean Pavlovsky, who has pub-
lished in the Paris Temjps (in 1878, I think) a
description of his imprisonment in the fortress,
with a preface by Tourgueneff, whose name is a
sufficient guarantee of the absolute trustworthi-
ness of Pavlovsky's description. Mr. Lans-
delFs diatribes against " exaggerated and
vindictive expressions " of released prisoners,
are, therefore, mere flowers of polemics.

If Mr. Lansdell had limited himself to the
description of what he saw, and had added that
those prisoners whom he saw in the bastion
were waiting for trial, or for exile without trial,
for two, three years, or more, he would have
merely done what he ought to do. But he
goes on to deny the descriptions of such parts
of the fortress which he has not seen, and of
which he has not the slightest idea.

I had brought to the knowledge of pubHc



A Foreigner on Russian Prisons. 249

opinion in England, in order to show the
hypocrisy of our Goyernment, the treatment
to which were submitted, the condemned revolu-
tionists, who, instead of being sent to Siberia,
according to law, were kept in the fortress, in
dark cells, without any occupation, and were
brought to madness, or on the edge of the
grave, in the proportion of five to ten in less
than one year. This I had written, according
to a description published in the Will of the
People and in the pamphlet Na Bodinye, as I
knew that each word of this description is
absolutely exact.

This part of the fortress (where Shiryaeff,
Okladsky, Tikhonoff, Martynovsky, Tsukerman,
&c., were kept in 1881, that is, the Trubetskoi
ravelin, not the bastion) was not shown to Mr.
Lansdell, and he knows absolutely nothing about
it ; so that the only account which, in my opinion,
he was entitled to give was the following :

" Although Count Tolstoy had promised me
that I should see everything (he might say), but
I was shown only that building where prisoners
are kept when waiting for trial, and the Cour-
tine, where I found no political prisoners. I
was not shown any building where con-
demned Terrorists were kept, and I do not re-
member any of the names mentioned in the



250 In Russian and French Prisons.

Times being named to me in tlie Trubetskoi
bastion. So I can say nothing about the fate
of Sliiryaeff, Okladsky, and their comrades. In
fact, I have visited only one bastion out of six,
and have no idea about what the ravelins and
the remainder of the fortress may contain."

That would have been, I tbink, the only
correct way to give an account of his visit to
the fortress, and this the more as, out of two
informants of Mr. Lansdell both belonging to
the State secret police one (who belonged to
the third section), said that he has visited once
a building with cells underground which were
" lighted from the corridor above, hardly
enough," he said, '* to read," which cells are
probably the same that I have mentioned, where
lamps are lighted for twenty-two hours out of
twenty-four ; and the other informant (" a chief
of the gendarmerie") mentioned a more com^-
fortable building, three stories high, in the
Alexis Ravelin, where prisoners were kept too.
There are thus at least two prisons, or two
suites of cells, which were not shown to Mr.
Lansdell. But notwithstanding that, Mr.
Lansdell tries to cast a doubt upon the just-
mentioned description of the shameful treat-
ment to which Shiryaeff, Okladsky, and their



A Foreigner on Russiait Prisons. 251

comrades were submitted, and, in order to show
its inaccuracy, tells us a long story about a
Russian, Mr. Robinson, wlio was kept, some
twenty years ago, for three years (without being
brought before a court) in the Alexis Ravehn,
and was treated there as in a good hotel.
Everybody will understand, however, that Mr.
Robinson's case has absolutely nothing to do
with that of Shiryaeff and Okladsky, and that
the well-lighted room where he was kept (like
hundreds of students and young men arrested at
the same epoch) has nothing to do with the suite
of dark cells mentioned not only by '' vindic-
tive writers," but even by a third section in-
formant of Mr. Lansdell. The fortress covers
several hundred acres, and contains all kinds
of buildings, from the palace of the Comman-
dant to the cells where people are brought to
death, or madness, in the course of a few months.
There is, however, one point upon which
Mr. Lansdell's doubts are justifiable. It is
when he doubts that physical torture has been
applied to Ryssakoff. We doubted also. But,
who will be convinced of the contrary by such
arguments of Mr. Lansdell as these : Nobody
was tortured in his presence, and Mr. Jones, a
British subject, who was arrested once, and set



252 In Russian and French Prisons. ^

at liberty after an examination wliicli lasted
for a quarter of an hour, was not pat to tor-
ture ! ' Everybody understands that torture
would not be applied in the fortress under fhe
eyes of Mr. Lansdell, and still less to Mr.
Jones.

But Mr. Lansdell lias made up his mind that
after having seen a corner of the fortress, one
would know everything about it ; and he goes
still further, he victoriously exclaims " What,
then, have become of the cachots, oubliettes, and
dismal chambers which have been connected
with the Peter and Paul by so many ? " Well,
I also know the Troubetskoi bastion ; I know
also the rooms of the Courtine ; still I should
never permit myself, on the ground of this
limited knowledge, either to afi&rm or to deny
the existence of oubliettes in the fortress. I
should not affirm their existence, as I know that
oubliettes are usually discovered only after a
14th of July; and I should not deny it, as I
know that the Troubetskoi bastion does not
embody even a tenth part of the fortifications of
the fortress. The facts given in a foregoing
chapter amply prove that there are oubliettes,
with men therein, and that Mr. Lansdell. in

2 Contemporary Review ^ p. 285.



A Foreigner on Russian Prisons, 253

denying tlieir existence, has pushed too far his
zeal in whitewashing the Russian Government.
And now let me add a few words about the
difficulties which beset the way of those who
earnestly wish to know the real state of Russian
prisons. I shall not follow Mr. Lansdell's
example, and accuse him of a want of good
faith for his holding different views on Russian
prisons from our Russian explorers and my-
self. I am fully aware of the difficulties one
meets with in this way. I know them from
my own experience, and still more from the
written experience of those who attempted to
make on a larger scale an inquiry into the state
of our prisons. Even officials, to whom their
official position opened the doors of the prisons
at any time, and who had plenty of time before
them to pursue their inquiry, openly acknow-
ledge these difficulties. All serious explorers of
our penal institutions are unanimous in saying
that one learns nothing from a mere inspection
of a prison. " Each prison undergoes a magical
change when a visitor is expected," says one
of them. " I did not recognize the lock-up
which I had visited incognito, when I went
afterwards to the same lock-up in my official
quality," says another. " The prisoners never



2 54 I^^ Russian and French Prisons.

unveil to an inspector the liorrors committed
in the prison, as they know that the inspector
goes away and the jailer remains," says a
third explorer. One mnst know the prisons
beforehand to discover the horrible blackholes,
like those described by MM. Nikitin and Yad-
rintseff, as they obviously will never be shown
to a visitor who knows nothing about them ;
and so on.

Such being the difficulties for Russian officials,
they are still greater for a foreigner. He is in
the worst imaginable position, on account of
the continuous fear of Russian administrators of
being treated by the foreign press as barbarians.
He has before him this dilemma. Either he
will thoroughly inquire into the state of the
prisons, he will go to the bottom, and he will
discover the bestialities of the Makaroffs, the
Ti'epoffs, and their acolytes ; and then he will
not receive permission to visit prisons. Or, he
will make only an official scamper through a few
prisons ; he will know nothing but what the
Government is wilhng to let him know ; and,
being unable to test for himself what is reported
to him by officials, he will become the vehicle.
for bringing to public knowledge what his
official acquaintances desire to be published.
Such is the case of Mr. Lansdell.



A Foreigner on Russian P7dsons. 255

But the greater the difficulties, the greater
must be the efforts of those who really are
desirous to know the truth ; and we have seen
foreigners who have vanquished these difficulties.
One may differ with Mr. Mackenzie Wallace on
many points, perhaps himself would change
now his opinion on several subjects ; but still
his book, though not received with congratu-
lations by MM. Katkoff and Tolstoy, was re-
cognized unanimously by the independent Rus-
sian press as a serious and conscious work.
And as to our prisons, several Russian officials,
by displaying much patience and by spending
much time, have come to learn the true state
of our peual institutions. The English prisons
are not Russian ostrogs. But if a foreigner
went to England, without knowing a word of
English, without taking the pains to study
what was written in England about her penal
institutions, and, after having paid a hasty
visit to some prisons, should write that all those
who hold different views on prisons from him-
self are merely inspired with a feeling of vin-
dictiveness, surelv he would be accused of o^reat
levity and presumption. But Russia is not
England, and to know the truth in Russia is
far more difficult.

Levity is always regrettable, but it is the



256 In Russian and French Prisons.

more regrefctable in questions like this, and in
a country like Russia. For twenty years all
honest men in our country have been loudly
crying against our prisons, and loudly asking
for an immediate reform. For twenty years
public opinion vainly asks for a thorough reno-
vation of the prison administration, for more
light, for more supervision in the whole
system. And the Government, which refuses
that, will be only too glad if it can answer them :
" You see, there is a foreigner who knows every-
thing about prisons throughout the world, and
who thinks that all you say is mere exaggera-
tion ; that our prisons are not at all bad in
comparison with those of other countries."

When thousands, nay, a hundred thousand,
of men, women, and children are groaning
under the abominable regime of prisons which
we see in Russia, one ought to proceed with
the greatest cautiousness; and I earnestly
invite the foreigners who may be tempted to
study this question, never to forget that each
attempt to extenuate the dark features of our
prisons will be a stone brought to consolidate
the abominable regime we have now.



In French Prisons, 257



CHAPTER VIII.



IN FRENCH PRISONS.^



The St. Paul prison at Lyons, where I spent
the first three months of my incarceration, is
not one of those old, dilapidated, and damp
dungeons which are still resorted to in many
French provincial towns for lodging prisoners.
It is a modern prison, and pretends to rank
among the best prisons departementales. It
covers a wide area enclosed by a double girdle

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    Lösung. E-Mail: Oboitespelltemple@gmail.com
    (1) Wenn Sie Ihre Ex zurück möchten.
    (2) wenn Sie immer schlechte Träume haben.
    (3) Sie möchten in Ihrem Büro gefördert werden.
    (4) Sie wollen, dass Frauen / Männer nach Ihnen laufen.
    (5) Wenn Sie ein Kind wollen.
    (6) Sie wollen reich sein.
    (7) Sie wollen Ihre Ehefrau / Ehefrau für immer sein.
    (8) Wenn Sie finanzielle Unterstützung benötigen.
    (9) Wie du betrogen worden bist und du willst dich erholen
    Geld.
    (10), wenn Sie Ihre Scheidung stoppen wollen.
    (11), wenn Sie Ihren Ehemann scheiden wollen.
    (12), wenn Sie Ihre Wünsche erteilen möchten.
    (13) Schwangerschaft Zauberspruch Baby zu konzipieren
    (14) Gewähren Sie gewinnen die beunruhigende Gericht Fälle u. Scheidung egal
    Wie
    Welche Stufe
    (15) Stoppen Sie Ihre Ehe oder Beziehung auseinanderbrechen.
    (16) Willst du mit deinem Partner heiraten.
    (17) Brauchen Sie Glück, ein Darlehen zu bekommen.
    (18) HIV-SCHRITT
    Grüße

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