Mittwoch, 27. April 2011

Николай Гаврилович Чернышевский

Николай Гаврилович Чернышевский (Nikolaj Gavrilovich Chernyshevskij)

(12 (24) июля 1828, Саратов, Российская империя — 17 (29) октября 1889, Саратов, Российская империя)

das müsste doch der sein, der im Alex Herzen II erwähnt wird...

Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (Russian: Никола́й Гаври́лович Черныше́вский) (July 12, 1828 – October 17, 1889) was a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist (seen by some as a utopian socialist). He was the leader of the revolutionary democratic movement of the 1860s, and an influence on Vladimir Lenin, Emma Goldman, and Serbian political writer and socialist Svetozar Marković.

The son of a priest, Chernyshevsky was born in Saratov in 1828, and stayed there till 1846. He graduated at the local seminary where he learnt English, French, German, Italian, Latin, Greek and Old Slavonic. It was there he gained a love of literature.[1] At St Petersburg university he often struggled to warm his room. He kept a diary of trivia like the number of tears he shed over a dead friend. It was here that he became an atheist.[2] He was inspired by the works of Ludwig Feuerbach and Charles Fourier After graduating from Saint Petersburg University in 1850, he taught literature at a gymnasium in Saratov. From 1853 to 1862, he lived in Saint Petersburg, and became the chief editor of Sovremennik ("Contemporary"), in which he published his main literary reviews and his essays on philosophy.
In 1862, he was arrested and confined in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul, where he wrote his famous novel What Is to Be Done? The novel was an inspiration to many later Russian revolutionaries, who sought to emulate the novel's hero, who was wholly dedicated to the revolution, ascetic in his habits and ruthlessly disciplined, to the point of sleeping on a bed of nails and eating only meat in order to build strength for the Revolution. Among those who have referenced the novel include Lenin, who wrote a work of political theory of the same name. In 1862, Chernyshevsky was sentenced to civil execution (mock execution), followed by penal servitude (1864-72), and by exile to Vilyuisk, Siberia (1872-83). He died at the age of 61.


Chernyshevsky was a founder of Narodism, Russian populism, and agitated for the revolutionary overthrow of the autocracy and the creation of a socialist society based on the old peasant commune.
Chernyshevsky's ideas were heavily influenced by Alexander Herzen, Vissarion Belinsky, and Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach. He saw class struggle as the means of society's forward movement and advocated for the interests of the working people. In his view, the masses were the chief maker of history. He is reputed to have used the phrase "the worse the better", to indicate that the worse the social conditions became for the poor, the more inclined they would be to launch a revolution.
According to Professor Emeritus of Slavic and Comparative Literature at Stanford, Joseph Frank, "Chernyshevsky's novel What Is to Be Done?, far more than Marx's Das Kapital, supplied the emotional dynamic that eventually went to make the Russian Revolution".[3]

ChernyshevskijZwei Erstdrucke
Los 1666

Chernyshevski N(ikolay) G(avrilowitsch) . Zwei seltene Erstdrucke in 1 Band. 15 x 11,5 cm. Lädierter Bibl.-HLeinen. Genf, M. Elpidine, 1901 bzw. 1898.
I. Russkii Chelovek na Rendez-vous (Der russische Mann beim Rendez-vous) 38 S. 1901. II. Nauchilis-li? (Ob sie lernten?) 29 S. 1898. - Papier altersbedingt etwas gebräunt.

(18281889), Russian radical journalist, writer, literary critic, and thinker.
Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky was the son of an Orthodox priest. From 1842 to 1845 he attended the theological seminary in Saratov, and in 1850 he graduated from the Department of History and Philology of the University of St. Petersburg. Chernyshevsky was a polyglot; he knew eight foreign languages. As a student Chernyshevsky impressed his professors with his distinguished knowledge in literature and linguistics, and they predicted that he would have a bright academic career.
After two years of teaching in Saratov from 1851 to 1853, Chernyshevsky returned to St. Petersburg. There Chernyshevsky began to write for the popular journals Otechestvennye Zapiski (Annals of the Fatherland ) and Sovremennik (Contemporary ). In 1859 he became editor in chief of Sovremennik. There he published his Ocherki gogolevskogo perioda russkoi literatury (Essays on the Gogolian Period in Russian Literature ), "his first and most important contribution to literary criticism" according to Eugene Lampert (1965, p. 110). Soon Chernyshevsky became very popular among radical youth and was called a "prophet of the young generation" (Irina Paperno, 1988).
However, Chernyshevsky was not satisfied with only doing journalist work; he attempted to continue his academic career and prepared his dissertation, "The Aesthetic Relations of Art to Reality" (1855). This dissertation presented a doctrine about the superiority of reality over art. He believed that nothing could be more beautiful than that which exists in reality; as he wrote, "Beauty is life." According to Chernyshevsky, art should be a "textbook of life." He rejected "art for art's sake." However, the Academic Board of the University of St. Petersburg did not share Chernyshevsky's views on art and did not approve his dissertation. According to T. Pecherskaya, Chernyshevsky said that his dissertation was his interpretation of the ideas of the philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach, but the conservative Academic Board could not understand him.
After his unsuccessful attempt to pursue an academic career, Chernyshevsky continued his journalistic work and published many essays on art, literature, philosophy, and radical socialist thought. He was a materialist and followed the ideas of German philosophers of the early and mid-nineteenth century. Chernyshevsky propounded radical ideas in his essays and criticized the emancipation of serfs by the government from the radical point of view. He believed that the liberation of the serfs without land was inadequate and mockingly cruel to the peasants. Francis B. Randall (N.G. Chernyshevskii, 1967, preface) wrote that Chernyshevsky called himself a "socialist" but took his doctrine "not from Marx but from the French radicals of the decades before the revolution of 1848." Chernyshevsky believed in the peasant commune as the germ of the future socialist society and called for a peasant revolution in his publications. Fearing Chernyshevsky's growing influence, the government closed Contemporary in 1861 and put its editor under secret police surveillance. In July 1862 Chernyshevsky was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg. During his two years of imprisonment from 1862 to 1864, when Chernyshevsky waited for his sentence, he wrote his most famous novel What Is to Be Done? and several other works of fiction. In the novel What Is to Be Done? Chernyshevsky described the life of a new type of people, who lived by their own labor and led a new kind of family life, where the enlightened woman was a man's lifelong companion. The novel popularized the ideas of women's equality and "cooperative socialism"; it depicted the future society as a society of equality and happiness for all. This novel was a synthesis of Chernyshevsky's sociopolitical, philosophical, and ethical views. The novel became very popular among the radical youth. Aside from the ideas it contained, this work was not a great literary achievement. Lampert (op. cit., p. 224) states that Chernyshevsky "wrote his novel on a fairly low imaginative plane." All his heroes speak with the same voice, men and women alike. Chernyshevsky himself did not have any delusions about his literary talent. He wrote his wife from Siberia: "I have not a trace of artistic talent and all [the novel's] merit consists merely in its truthfulness" (Lampert, op. cit., p. 223).
In spite of the lack of direct evidence of Chernyshevsky's participation as a member in the revolutionary organizations, he was condemned to fourteen (later reduced to seven) years of forced labor, followed by lifelong exile in Siberia. According to Lampert, "the government had come to realize the extent of Chernyshevsky's influence on the younger generation; it knew what his views were, and it had taken fright." The government considered Chernyshevsky's ideas a danger to the existing order.
On May 19, 1864, the ceremony of "civil execution" was performed on Chernyshevsky in the center of St. Petersburg in Mytninskaya Square. "After sentence has been read out he was forced to kneel, a sword was broken over his head and he was then set in a pillory by a chain," wrote Alexei Suvorin (Lampert, op. cit., p. 130). However, instead the reaction of condemnation anticipated by the authorities, the big crowd stood silent. Then somebody from the crowd threw a bunch of flowers at Chernyshevsky's feet.
Chernyshevsky spent more than twenty-five years in prison, forced labor, and exile. During this time he continued to write fiction, essays, and philosophical works (the most famous of his philosophical works was The Nature of Human Knowledge ). The last years of his life he devoted to the translation of Georg Weber's Universal History. Chernyshevsky refused to ask the authorities for "imperial mercy" even when they encouraged him to do so. Chernyshevsky believed that he was innocent and thus did not need be forgiven by the government. Chernyshevsky's fortitude brought him respect even from among his opponents. The respect for Chernyshevsky and deep sympathy for his misfortune was expressed by the Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Chernyshevsky received permission from the authorities to return to his native city of Saratov only four months before his death. Government persecution fueled the image of Chernyshevsky as a "revolutionary saint." His works were denied publication in Russia until the first Russian revolution in 1905. However, the novels and essays of Chernyshevsky were spread around the country illegally, often in handwritten copies. His novel What Is to Be Done? became a table book of several generations of Russian radical youth. This novel was considered a classic of Russian literature in Soviet times. After the collapse of the socialist system, people lost interest in the pro-socialist ideas and works of Chernyshevsky. He died on October 29, 1989.
See also: dostoyevsky, fyodor mikhailovich; journalism; socialism; what is to be done


Lampert, E. (1965). Sons against Fathers. Studies in Russian Radicalism and Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon.
Paperno, Irina. (1988). Chernyshevsky and the Age of Realism: A Study of the Semiotic of Behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Randall, Francis B. (1967). N. G. Chernyshevskii. New York: Twayne.
Tompkins, Stuart Ramsay. (1957). The Russian Intelligentsia: Makers of the Revolutionary State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Victoria Khiterer

mal schauen was ich finde, hier mal obras :


* 1862—1863 Что делать ? Из рассказов о новых людях.
* 1863 Повести в повести (незаконч.)
* 1867—1870 Пролог. Роман из начала шестидесятых годов.(незаконч.)

* 1863 Алферьев.
* 1864 Мелкие рассказы.
Литературная критика

* 1850 О «Бригадире» Фонвизина. Кандидатской работа.
* 1854 Об искренности в критике.
* 1854 Песни разных народов.
* 1854 Бедность не порок. Комедия А. Островского.
* 1855 Сочинения Пушкина.
* 1855—1856 Очерки гоголевского периода русской литературы.
* 1856 Александр Сергеевич Пушкин. Его жизнь и сочинения.
* 1856 Стихотворения Кольцова.
* 1856 Стихотворения Н. Огарева.
* 1856 Собрание стихотворений В. Бенедиктова.
* 1856 Детство и отрочество. Военные рассказы графа Л. Н. Толстого.
* 1856 Очерки из крестьянского быта А. Ф. Писемского.
* 1857 Лессинг. Его время, его жизнь и деятельность.
* 1857 «Губернские очерки» Щедрина.
* 1857 Сочинения В. Жуковского.
* 1857 Стихотворения Н. Щербины.
* 1857 «Письма об Испании» В. П. Боткина.
* 1858 Русский человек на rendez-vous. Размышления по прочтении повести г. Тургенева «Ася».
* 1860 Собрание чудес, повести, заимствованные из мифологии.
* 1861 Не начало ли перемены ? Рассказы Н. В. Успенского. Две части.

* 1856 Обзор исторического развития сельской общины в России Чичерина.
* 1856 «Русская беседа» и ее направление.
* 1857 «Русская беседа» и славянофильство.
* 1857 О поземельной собственности.
* 1858 Откупная система.
* 1858 Кавеньяк.
* 1858 Июльская монархия.
* 1859 Материалы для решения крестьянского вопроса.
* 1859 Суеверие и правила логики.
* 1859 Капитал и труд.
* 1859—1862 Политика. Ежемесячные обзоры заграничной политической жизни.
* 1860 История цивилизации в Европе от падения Римской империи до Французской революции.
* 1861 Политико-экономические письма к президенту Американских Соединенных Штатов Г. К. Кэри.
* 1861 О причинах падения Рима.
* 1861 Граф Кавур.
* 1861 Непочтительность к авторитетам. По поводу 'Демократии в Америке' Токвиля.
* 1861 Барским крестьянам от их доброжелателей.
* 1862 В изъявление признательности Письмо к г. З<ари>ну.
* 1862 Письма без адреса.
* 1878 Письмо сыновьям А. Н. и М. Н. Чернышевским.

* 1861 Н. А. Добролюбов. Некролог.
* 1883 Воспоминания о Некрасове.
* 1884—1888 Материалы для биографии Н. А. Добролюбова, собранные в 1861—1862.
* 1884—1888 Воспоминания об отношениях Тургенева к Добролюбову и о разрыве дружбы между Тургеневым и Некрасовым.
Философия и эстетика

* 1854 Критический взгляд на современные эстетические понятия.
* 1855 Эстетические отношения искусства к действительности. Магистерская диссертация.
* 1855 Возвышенное и комическое.
* 1855 Характер человеческого знания.
* 1858 Критика философских предубеждений против общинного владения.
* 1860 Антропологический принцип в философии. «Очерки вопросов практической философии». Сочинение П. Л. Лаврова.
* 1888 Происхождение теории благотворности борьбы за жизнь. Предисловие к некоторым трактатам по ботанике, зоологии и наукам о человеческой жизни.

* 1860 «Оснований политической экономии Д. С. Милля». Со своими примечаниями.
* 1884—1888 "Всеобщая история Г. Вебера. Со своими статьями и комментариями.

Works about Chernyshevsky

  • Vladimir Nabokov's The Gift has the protagonist, Fyodor Godunov-Cherdyntsev, study Chernyshevsky and write the critical biography The Life of Chernychevski which represents Chapter Four of the novel. The publication of this work causes a literary scandal.[4]
  • Paperno, Irina, Chernyshevsky and the Age of Realism: A Study in the Semiotics of Behavior. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988.
  • Pereira, N.G.O., The Thought and Teachings of N.G. Černyševskij. The Hague: Mouton, 1975.


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